Genesis 37:17-20

Genesis 37:17

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אִישׁ

 

אִישׁ: man
noun, common, masculine, singular 

נָסְעוּ

 

נסע: pull out or up, set out, journey
verb, qal, affix, third person, common, plural 

מִ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

זֶּה

 

זֶה: this, here
adjective, masculine, singular 

 

hZ<mi | hZ< is functioning as a substantive meaning this place

כִּי

 

כִּי: surely, that, because
particle, conjunction 

שָׁמַעְתִּי

 

שׁמע: hear
verb, qal, affix, first person, common, singular 

אֹמְרִים

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, participle, masculine, plural 

נֵלְכָה

 

הלךְ: travel, go
verb, qal, prefix, first person, common, plural 

 

Gen.22:5 same word

דֹּתָיְנָה

 

דֹּתָן: Dothan
noun, proper name, directional heh ending 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֵּלֶךְ

 

הלךְ: travel, go
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

יוֹסֵף

 

יוֹסֵף: Joseph Joseph
noun, proper name 

אַחַר

 

אַחַר: after
particle, adverb 

אֶחָיו

 

אָח: brother
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

wyx'a, rx;a; | rx;a; has appeared in different contexts in the readings

hL,aeêh' ~yrIb'D>h; rx;a; (Gen.22:1)

rx;a; lyIa;-hNEhiw> (Gen.22:13)

rB'd>Mih; rx;a; !aCoh;-ta, gh;n>YIw: (Ex.3:1)

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּמְצָאֵם

 

מצא: discover, find out
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular with third person, masculine, plural suffix, vav-conv

בְּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

דֹתָן

 

דֹּתָן: Dothan
noun, proper name 

Genesis 37:18

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּרְאוּ

 

ראה: seeing
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

 

Is the root more likely to be ary or har (17.5)?

אֹתוֹ

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

מֵ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

רָחֹק

 

רָחוֹק: distant, far, et distance
adjective, masculine, singular 

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

בְ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

טֶרֶם

 

טֶרֶם: not yet, ere, before that
particle, adverb 

 

A temporal adverb meaning before. It appears as ~r,j,b. or ~r,j, without the initial B

יִקְרַב

 

קרב: come near, approach
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular 

אֲלֵיהֶם

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, plural suffix 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּתְנַכְּלוּ

 

נכל: be crafty
verb, hithpael, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

 

The stem of this verb is the Hitpael. It can be recognised in the prefix form by the prefix pronoun followed by t and in every form it has a doubled middle root letter. Like all the derived stems it can have many shades of meaning. It is often intensive and usually either reflexive and/or interactive. Here they planned deceitfully among themselves seems to make the point.

אֹתוֹ

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

לַ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

הֲמִיתוֹ

 

מות: die
verb, hiphil, infinitive construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

Atymih]l; The attached preposition should help with the form, and the suffix is familiar. h] cannot be interrogative h because of its position in the word; the clue to its function lies in the suffix which demands a transitive form of the verb (see 29.1 for help with the root).

Genesis 37:19

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמְרוּ

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

אִישׁ

 

אִישׁ: man
noun, common, masculine, singular 

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

אָחִיו

 

אָח: brother
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

wyxia'-la, vyai Wrm.aYOw:  This is an interesting bit of phraseology. We have seen a collective noun taking a singular verb. Now we have just the opposite: a plural verb and what seems to be a singular subject. But vyai meaning a man can imply each man so They said each to his brother would smooth out the English without distorting the meaning of the text.

הִנֵּה

 

הִנֵּה: lo! behold!;
particle, interjection 

בַּעַל

 

בַּעַל: owner, lord
noun, common, masculine, singular 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

חֲלֹמוֹת

 

חֲלוֹם: dream
noun, common, masculine, plural 

הַלָּזֶה

 

הַלָּזֶה: tthis, there, yonder
adjective, masculine, singular 

 

hz<L'h; tAml{x]h; l[;B;  This phrase is a complicated construction.

First look at hz<L'h; It is considered to be an old form of hz<

The adjective hz<L'h; modifies l[;B; though it lies outisde the construct chain. Yet it could not be within the construct chain because theoretically, nothing should come between the word in the construct and the word in the absolute. We should think of hz<L'h; parenthetically, much like

r[;n: aWhw> (Gen.37:2). This phrase injects a heavy note of sarcasm.

בָּא

 

בּוא: come in, come, go in, go
verb, qal, participle, masculine, singular 

 

Will you treat this as a participle or an affix form?

Genesis 37:20

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

עַתָּה

 

עַתָּה: now so then
particle, adverb 

לְכוּ

 

הלךְ: travel, go
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, plural 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

נַהַרְגֵהוּ

 

הרג: slaughter
verb, qal, prefix, first person, common, plural with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

Whkeliv.n:w> WhgEr.h;n:w> Wkl. Do you notice that the subject of all these verbs is not the same? This is a feature of Hebrew which is seen quite often. It is not the mark of poor prose; but rather a stylistic device.

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

נַשְׁלִכֵהוּ

 

שׁלךְ: throw, fling, cast
verb, hiphil, prefix, first person, common, plural with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

בְּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

אַחַד

 

אֶחָד: gather together
adjective, masculine, singular 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

בֹּרוֹת

 

בּוֹר: pit, cistern, well
noun, common, masculine, plural 

 

tArBoh; This is a difficult word to look up in the dictionary. When faced with six letters it’s time to do surgery. First to be excised from the contenders for consideration as a root letter is the vowel letter A  Then there is the definite article with doubling dagesh in front of the word. Left are one b and r which definitely are root letters and a final t  

Well, unfortunately trb is not a root. It seems logical then to consider tA as a feminine plural noun ending. That leaves only two letters for the root, so where is the missing letter? Suppose we try 3rd h  There is a root hrb  In fact there is more than one. There just isn’t one that makes any sense here. We have to try for another missing letter. What about trying rwb That may work but you will find that the entry may send you to rab [although some dictionaries do list the root as rwb] which is the singular absolute of tArBo  The a has elided or so the logic of it would go.

raeB. appears in Gen.29:2, 3, and 10 causing no trouble because in those places it is spelled with its three dictionary root letters. One more possibility: rAB and raeB. are not variations in spelling but rather two distinct words. That thought offers little comfort when one has to do battle with a dictionary which lists both under the same root.

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אָמַרְנוּ

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, affix, first person, common, plural 

חַיָּה

 

חַיָּה: live
noun, common, feminine, singular 

רָעָה

 

רָעָה: evil
adjective, feminine, singular 

 

h['r' hY"x; Is hY"x; a 3 m. sg. Qal affix? Check the vowel under the first root letter. Would a Qal affix have a dagesh forte in the middle root letter? The root is hyx [not hyh] and  hY"x; is a noun.

Now take a look at h['r' In this chapter we have seen h[,ro and h['r" (verse 2), tA[r>li (verse 12), and ~y[iro (verse 13). The root in these words is either [[r or h[r  Which root fits here? Imagine listening to this phrase recited. Do you think a double entendre is intended?

אֲכָלָתְהוּ

 

אכל: eat, devour
verb, qal, affix, third person, feminine, singular with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

Remove the suffix. Of the consonants left, one group is not a root and the other composes a root which you have seen tl,k,a]M;h; (Gen.22:6), lkoa/l, (Gen.28:20), and lK'au (Ex.3:2). What about the PGN? This verb seems to be pointed for a second person feminine singular subject; but considering the gender and number of the immediately preceding noun and adjective (which are the subject for this verb), you would expect a third person feminine singular affix pronoun. What is going on here? Well, the 3 f. sg. affix pronoun is h ' which, due to the characteristics of h in such a position , cannot be followed by a suffix. So the t is a euphonic substitute. One has to depend on context for such a form to be relieved of its ambiguity.

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

נִרְאֶה

 

ראה: seeing
verb, qal, prefix, first person, common, plural 

 

It is a reasonable possibility that har is the root. The functions of the conjunction and the n become the issues to consider. The n could be the 1 c. pl. subject pronoun. That would give the verb prefix form and the conjunction could be a simple vav. Perhaps the form is cohortative. In that case the conjunction would express purpose. (see ha,r>a,w> Ex.3:3). Could you make a case for a Nifal here?

מַה־

 

מָה: what
pronoun, interrogative 

יִּהְיוּ

 

היה: be, happen
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, plural 

 

What is the subject of this verb? Indeed what is the verb? For the dagesh see 17.3b

חֲלֹמֹתָיו

 

חֲלוֹם: dream
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

~Olx] does not have the plural endiNG you would expect on a masculine noun.