Genesis 37:1-4

Genesis 37:1

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֵּשֶׁב

 

ישׁב: sit, remain, dwell
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv 

יַעֲקֹב

 

יַעֲקֹב: Jacob
noun, proper name 

בְּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

אֶרֶץ

 

אֶרֶץ: earth, land
noun, common, feminine, singular 

מְגוּרֵי

 

מָגוֹר: sojourning-place, dwelling-place, sojourning
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

 

yreWgm. The endiNG reveals that you are looking at what form of the word? If your dictionary does not list this word under m where would you look next?

אָבִיו

 

אָב: father
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

בְּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

אֶרֶץ

 

אֶרֶץ: earth, land
noun, common, feminine, singular 

 

#r,a,B. Is this word definite or indefinite?

כְּנָעַן

 

כְּנַעַן: Canaan
noun, proper name 

Genesis 37:2

אֵלֶּה

 

אֵלֶּה: these
adjective, common, plural 

תֹּלְדוֹת

 

תּוֹלֵדוֹת: generations genealogies = account of a man and his descendants
noun, common, feminine, plural, construct 

 

tAdl.To ŸhL,ae  |  tAdl.To is from the root dly The whole phrase is often used when a report of a genealogy is about to begin. But as you read on you will see that doesn’t happen here. How is hL,ae  related to tAdl.To (15.2)?

יַעֲקֹב

 

יַעֲקֹב: Jacob
noun, proper name 

יוֹסֵף

 

יוֹסֵף: Joseph Joseph
noun, proper name 

בֶּן־

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

שְׁבַע־

 

שֶׁבַע: seven
adjective, feminine, singular, construct 

עֶשְׂרֵה

 

עֶשְׂרֵה: ten
adjective, feminine, singular 

שָׁנָה

 

שָׁנָה: year
noun, common, feminine, singular 

 

hn"v' href.[,-[b;v.-!B, The idiom for telling someone’s age is a son or daughter of so-and-so-many-a-year. The number is composed much the same way as we compound it in English.

הָיָה

 

היה: be, happen
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

רֹעֶה

 

רעה: pasture
verb, qal, participle, masculine, singular 

אֶת־

 

אֵת:
particle, preposition 

אֶחָיו

 

אָח: brother
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

wyx'a,-ta, h[,ro hy"h' The construction looks the same as !aco-ta, h[,ro hy"h' in Ex.3:1, but is it?

wyx'a, An unscientific but practical way to tell the singular from the plural of xa' with a 3 m. sg. ending is:

wyxia'

wyx'a,

One dot one brother

More than one dot, more than one brother

בַּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, inseparable preposition with article 

צֹּאן

 

צֹאן: small cattle, sheep and goats, flock, flocks
noun, common, feminine and masculine, singular 

 

The individual words from h[,ro to here are not difficult but you may be having trouble making sense out of them. !aCoB; h[,ro constitutes an idiom meaning herdsman, and if you put mental commas around wyx'a,-ta, it will all fall into place.

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

הוּא

 

הוּא: it, he
pronoun, third person, masculine, singular 

נַעַר

 

נַעַר: youth, early life
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

r[;n: aWhw> Another parenthetical remark in the form of a noun sentence

אֶת־

 

אֵת:
particle, preposition 

בְּנֵי

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

 

ynEB.-ta, Again think of the two possibilities for ta,

בִלְהָה

 

בִּלְהָה: Bilhah
noun, proper name 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֶת־

 

אֵת:
particle, preposition 

בְּנֵי

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

זִלְפָּה

 

זִלְפָּה: Zilpah
noun, proper name 

נְשֵׁי

 

אִשָּׁה: wife
noun, common, feminine, plural, construct 

 

This is the construct of an irregular noun (see: The Noun H.) Notice particularly the m. pl. endiNG on a feminine noun.

אָבִיו

 

אָב: father
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יָּבֵא

 

בּוא: come in, come, go in, go
verb, hiphil, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv 

 

abeY"w: You have seen aboY"w: and this form looks as if it comes from the same root. It does indeed! It is the 3 m. sg. Hifil prefix with vav conversive. The familiar patach is not under the prefix pronoun (see ~Kev.Y:w: Gen.22:3) because the missing letter convention takes precedence over the patach rule. Notice that a “dot vowel” is taking the place of the middle root letter (29.2).

יוֹסֵף

 

יוֹסֵף: Joseph Joseph
noun, proper name 

אֶת־

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object 

דִּבָּתָם

 

דִּבָּה: report slander bad reputation
noun, common, feminine, singular, construct with third person, masculine, plural suffix 

 

The root of this word is the geminate bbd  If you have difficulty finding the form in the dictionary review 22.4a.

רָעָה

 

רָעָה: evil
adjective, feminine, singular 

This word certainly looks like it might be related to h[,ro further back in the verse, but in this context, it isn’t. It is an adjective from the root [[r You should be able to see three features that ~t'B'DI and h['r" have in common.

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

אֲבִיהֶם

 

אָב: father
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with third person, masculine, plural suffix 

Genesis 37:3

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִשְׂרָאֵל

 

יִשְׂרָאֵל: Israel
noun, proper name 

אָהַב

 

אהב: love
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

אֶת־

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object 

יוֹסֵף

 

יוֹסֵף: Joseph Joseph
noun, proper name 

מִ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

כָּל־

 

כֹּל: all
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

בָּנָיו

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

wyn"B'-lK'mi @seAy-ta, bh;a' laer'f.yIw> After translating this clause, you may decide to use a comparative adverb for lK'mi even though that does not match a more literal translation.

כִּי־

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

בֶן־

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

זְקֻנִים

 

~ynIWqz> : old age
noun, common, masculine, plural 

 

A noun in the plural may be used to express an abstract idea

הוּא

 

הוּא: he, it
pronoun, third person, masculine, singular 

לוֹ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

עָשָׂה

 

עשׂה: do be done be done make be made be made made cause work do assign gain
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular

לוֹ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

Al hf'['w> To treat the verb as an affix plus vav reversive doesn’t work. This may be a special use of the vav reversive which we saw in Gen.29:3. An affix followed by an affix plus vav reversive may refer to an action which has been completed but has been done more than one time.

כְּתֹנֶת

 

כֻּתֹּנֶת: tunic
noun, common, feminine, singular 

פַּסִּים

 

פַּס: palm
noun, common, masculine, plural 

Genesis 37:4

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּרְאוּ

 

ראה: seeing
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

אֶחָיו

 

אָח: brother
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

כִּי־

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

אֹתוֹ

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

Notice the emphatic position  in this part of the verse. It is placed before the verb rather than the more usual place following both the verb and subject.

אָהַב

 

אהב: love
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

אֲבִיהֶם

 

אָב: father
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with third person, masculine, plural suffix 

מִ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

כָּל־

 

כֹּל: all
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

אֶחָיו

 

אָח: brother
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּשְׂנְאוּ

 

שׂנא: hate
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

אֹתוֹ

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

לֹא

 

לֹא: no, not
particle, negative 

יָכְלוּ

 

יכל: be able
verb, qal, affix, third person, common, plural 

 

Of the consonants in this word, it is sure that the cluster lk is part of the root. The shureq at the end of the verb indicates the 3 c. pl. The potentially ambiguous component is the initial y" It could be part of the root of a Qal affix (4.2 and 8.1) But perhaps you are thinking, “hollow verb in the Qal prefix” (6.1). it may help to remember that in a hollow verb, Qal prefix (without vav conversive), the middle root letter will appear.

דַּבְּרוֹ

 

דּבר: speak
verb, piel, infinitive construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

The root, stem and suffix are familiar. What vowel would you expect under the first root letter if this were a Piel affix? (15.4). There are two Piel forms which take patach under the first root letter. One is the imperative (19.2a). The other is the Piel infinitive Which form makes more sense here?

לְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

שָׁלֹם

 

שָׁלוֹם: completeness, soundness, welfare, peace
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

This is an example of yet another use of the preposition l in front of a noun. Some English translations have it give the noun an adverbial sense.