Genesis 28:19-22

Genesis 28:19

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּקְרָא

 

קרא: call, read out, aloud
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אֶת־

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object 

שֵׁם־

 

שֵׁם: name
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

מָּקוֹם

 

מָקוֹם: standing-place, place
noun, common, masculine, singular 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

הוּא

 

הוּא: come to pass, become, be
pronoun, third person, masculine, singular 

בֵּית־אֵל

 

בֵּית־אֵל: Bethel
noun, proper name 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אוּלָם

 

אוּלָם: but
particle, conjunction 

לוּז

 

לוּז: turn aside, depart
noun, proper name 

שֵׁם־

 

שֵׁם: name
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

עִיר

 

עִיר: city
noun, common, feminine, singular 

 

ry[ih'-~ve zWl A noun sentence

לָ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, inseparable preposition with article 

רִאשֹׁנָה

 

רִאשׁוֹן: former, first, chief
adjective, feminine, singular 

Genesis 28:20

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּדַּר

 

נדר: vow
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

יַעֲקֹב

 

יַעֲקֹב: Jacob
noun, proper name 

נֶדֶר

 

נֶדֶר: vow
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

rd,n< …..rD:YIw:

It is common Hebrew style to use the same root in different ways close together. It strengthens the idea, and is euphonic.

לֵ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

אמֹר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

 

A preposition in front of a verb almost certainly signals an infinitive (The sere under the l is not regular pointing for infinitive forms). In Hebrew, an infinitive is not always translated “to + verb” . It can be “verb + ing”. It gives the idea of the verb in the abstract sense. Both infinitives and participles have verb and noun-like qualities but there is a distinction between the two.

The participle stresses the doer of the action

The infinitive focuses on the action itself.

אִם־

 

אִם: if
particle, adverb 

 

This introduces a strong of clauses. You can consider the preposition to be repeated before each one.

יִהְיֶה

 

היה: be
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular 

אֱלֹהִים

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural 

עִמָּדִי

 

עִמָּד: take one’s stand, stand
particle, preposition with first person, common, singular suffix 

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction (Look up)

שְׁמָרַנִי

 

שׁמר: keep, watch, preserve
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular with first person, common, singular suffix 

 

This is a potentially ambiguous form. You learned in 18.1a that often the Qal singular imperative can be recognised by the shewa under the first root letter and here there is no affix or prefix pronoun to identify a PGN as in ^yTir>m;v.W (Genesis 28:15). But context tells us that an imperative does not fit here. The subject of this verb is the same as for the previous verb hy<h.yI

This is another Qal affix whose landmark vowel has been shortened from qamets to shewa because of the addition of a suffix.

בַּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, inseparable preposition with article 

דֶּרֶךְ

 

דֶּרֶךְ: way, march
noun, common, feminine and masculine, singular 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

זֶּה

 

זֶה: this, here
adjective, masculine, singular 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

אָנֹכִי

 

אָנֹכִי: I
pronoun, first person, common, singular 

הוֹלֵךְ

 

הלךְ: travel, go
verb, qal, participle, masculine, singular 

 

Notice the plene spelling.

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

נָתַן־

 

נתן: give
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

לִי

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with first person, common, singular suffix 

לֶחֶם

 

לֶחֶם: bread
noun, common, masculine, singular 

לֶ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

אֱכֹל

 

אכל: eat, devour
verb, qal, infinitive construct

 

lkoa/l, is pointed differently from rmoale because there are different patterns for 1st a verbs

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

בֶגֶד

 

בֶּגֶד: clothes
noun, common, masculine, singular 

לִ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

לְבֹּשׁ

 

לבשׁ: put on wear, clothe, be clothed
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

 

There have been three Qal infinitives in this verse, all pointed somewhat differently; yet each is recognisable because of the attached preposition.

Genesis 28:21

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

שַׁבְתִּי

 

שׁוב: turn back, return
verb, qal, affix, first person, common, singular 

 

After removing the conjunction and affix pronoun you are left with two letters for the root. In the Qal affix, 3rd h and hollow verbs may show only two root letters. But only hollow verbs can have the vowel patach (instead of qamets) under the first root letter. Thus the root here is bWv 

Some translators believe that this verse is a continuation of verse 20 and that the conditional ~[i still applies. Others feel that the new verse ends the condition and translates the conjunction w “then”.

בְ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

שָׁלוֹם

 

שָׁלוֹם: completeness, soundness, welfare, peace
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

When you are looking for a root, remember that a plene spelling does not introduce a new consonant.

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

בֵּית

 

בַּיִת: house
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

אָבִי

 

אָב: father
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with first person, common, singular suffix 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

הָיָה

 

היה: be, happen
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

לִי

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with first person, common, singular suffix 

לֵ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

אלֹהִים

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural 

 

~yhil{ale yli hwhy hy"h'w> There are two prepositional phrases here and each is introduced by l (17.1). Translate literally and then smooth out the English.

Genesis 28:22

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אֶבֶן

 

אֶבֶן: stone
noun, common, feminine, singular 

 

Subject: noun + attributive adjective

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

זֹּאת

 

זֹאת: this, these discharge
adjective, feminine, singular 

אֲשֶׁר־

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

Introduces a clause modifying the subject

שַׂמְתִּי

 

שׂים: put, place, set
verb, qal, affix, first person, common, singular 

מַצֵּבָה

 

מַצֵּבָה: pillar
noun, common, feminine, singular 

יִהְיֶה

 

היה: be, happen
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular 

בֵּית

 

tyIB; house
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

אֱלֹהִים

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural 

 

Predicate

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

כֹל

 

כֹּל: all
noun, common, masculine, singular 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

תִּתֶּן־

 

נתן: give
verb, qal, prefix, second person, masculine, singular 

 

16.6 concentrates on this verb. The second vowel has been shortened from sere to segol because the verb is followed by a maqqef. Most frequently, shortening of a vowel for this reason is seen with nouns in construct chains.

לִי

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with first person, common, singular suffix 

עַשֵּׂר

 

עשׂר: a ten m.
verb, piel, infinitive absolute 

אֲעַשְּׂרֶנּוּ

 

עשׂר: a ten m.
verb, piel, prefix, first person, common, singular with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

WNr<F.[;a] rFe[; Notice that the consonants  r f [ are common to both words. First look at WNr,îF.[;a] An a in front of the root can be only a prefix pronoun. That means that Wn at the end cannot be an affix subject pronoun.; it must have some other function. It can be the 3 m.sg. or 1 c.pl. object suffix, nunated form (see  hN"n<T.a, Gen.28:13). Context will determine which it is. It serves the same function as Wh in Whle[]h;w> (Gen.22:2).

Now look at the word rFe[; Hebrew has two infinitives. You have already seen the infinitve construct. As its name implies, you can build with it: prepositions on the front, suffixes at the end. rFe[; is an example of the other infinitive, the infinitive absolute. It serves to intensify the idea of the root. It most commonly stands right before the conjugated verb in the same stem. English has no corresponding construction which uses the verb twice. We use the verb and an adverb such as surely or indeed to try to capture the intensification in translation.

לָךְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with second person, feminine, singular suffix