Genesis 28:13
וְ ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction
הִנֵּה הִנֵּה: lo! behold!;
particle: interjection
יְהוָה יהוה: Yahweh
proper name
נִצָּב

נצב: stand (upright) take ones stand,
verb, niphal, participle, masculine singular

The same root as bC'mu (Genesis 28:12) but what is the stem? If it were Qal, the pointing would be bc;n" If it were a Piel, it would be pointed bCenI It is a Nifal participle. Remember: all participles except Qal and Nifal have a preformative m Again hNEhi was the clue to watch for a participle. The n you see is the preformative n stem indicator of some Nifal forms. The dagesh in the c represents the assimilated n of the root.

עָלָיו

עַל: on
particle: preposition with third person masculine singular suffix

The suffix could refer to the ladder or to Jacob

וַ ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction
יֹּאמַר

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person masculine singular, vav-conv

Starting in Gen.28:12 there has been a series of constructions made up of hNEhi followed by a participle. The reappearance of a finite verb means that the main narrative has resumed. (The m is pointed with patach - because of the accent.)

אֲנִי אֲנִי: I
pronoun, first person common singular
יְהוָה יהוה: Yahweh
proper name
אֱלֹהֵי אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, masculine plural construct
אַבְרָהָם אַבְרָהָם: Abraham
proper name
אָבִיךָ אָב: father
noun, masculine singular construct with second person masculine singular suffix
וֵ ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction
אלֹהֵי אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, masculine plural construct
יִצְחָק

יִצְחָק: Isaac
proper name

There is a major break in the sense of the verse after the atnah

הָ ה: the
particle: article
אָרֶץ אֶרֶץ: earth, land
noun, feminine singular
אֲשֶׁר אֲשֶׁר: which, who
particle: relative
אַתָּה

אַתָּה: you
pronoun, second person masculine singular

שֹׁכֵב שׁכב: lie down
verb, qal, participle, masculine singular
עָלֶיהָ

עַל: on.
particle: preposition with third person feminine singular suffix

This is the feminine counterpart of  wyl'[' It is referring to #r,a'h'

h'yl,[' bkevo hT'a; rv<a] #r,a'h'

This is a complicated phrase syntactically. It is best to translate it literally and then turn it into idiomatic English.  

Why does the h of h'yl,[' not have a mappiq (14.3)? Because the h has its own vowel which gives it consonantal value and so does not need a mappiq to perform that function.

לְךָ

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle: preposition with second person masculine singular suffix

Means the same as ^yl,ae (Gen.22:2)

אֶתְּנֶנָּה

נתן: give
verb, qal, prefix, first person common singular with third person feminine singular suffix

Kittel's view of this verb is as follows: A first person prefix pronoun + h ' ending are the signs of the cohortative (see hk'l.ne Gen 22:5). From the consonants that are left, you should be able to abstract a familiar root if, of course, you remember to account for the dagesh in the t (if not, consult 16:6). But you still have to account for the N , There is a set of endings in Hebrew which we will call nunated forms because they have an extra accented n syllable. This syllable has no grammatical function which we can discern, but it is thought to add strength to the suffix. The conventional singular cohortative would be hn"T.a, If perhaps you were thinking that the h ' at the end of hN"n<T.a, might be the feminine singular DO (Direct Object), remember in that case, the h would need a mappiq (14.3).

Is it a prefix with a 3/f/s suffix or is it a cohortative? Make up your own mind!!!

 

וּ

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction

W is the same conjunction as w> but it will appear this way before the letters p m b (affectionately known as he BuMP letters) and before other letters when they are pointed with a shewa, as in the case here. In English four words are needed for this one in Hebrew. Look at its components: conjunction + preposition + root + suffix.

לְ ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle: preposition
זַרְעֶךָ

זֶרַעseed
noun, masculine singular construct with second person masculine singular suffix

The second half or b part of this verse is long and complicated. First there is a noun #r<a'h' which is actually the DDO of the verb hN"n<T.a, but it does not have the DDO marker ta in front of it. Furthermore it is far in front of the verb and has a descriptive clause following it. After this clause [ which is introduced by rv,a]] comes an indirect object ^l.  then the main verb hN"n<T.a, and then another indirect object ^[,r>z:l.W What is the purpose of this complicated word order? Emphasis. #r<a'h' standing at the front, is emphasized and ^l.  preceding the verb is also emphasised.

 

Genesis 28:14

וְ ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction
הָיָה היה: to be
verb, qal, affix, third person masculine singular, vav-reversive
זַרְעֲךָ זֶרַע: seed
noun, masculine singular construct with second person masculine singular suffix
כַּ‍ כּ: the like of, like, as before
particle: preposition
עֲפַר

עָפָר: dust
noun, masculine singular construct

Here K; is not analagous to B; in rq,BoB; (Gen.22:3). rp;[]K; is in construct and so it cannot have the definite article. It is pointed rp;[]K; instead of rp;[]K. because of the guttural [ which follows the preposition. 

הָ ה: the
particle: article
אָרֶץ אֶרֶץ: earth, land
noun, feminine singular
וּ ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction
פָרַצְתָּ פּרץ: break through
verb, qal, affix, second person masculine singular, vav-reversive
יָמָּה יָם: West (sea)
noun, masculine singular with directional heh
וָ ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction
קֵדְמָה קֵדֶם: eastward to, toward the East (sunrise place)
particle: adverb with directional heh
וְ ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction
צָפֹנָה צָפוֹן: north (hide: beyond the mountains)
noun, feminine singular with directional heh
וָ ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction
נֶגְבָּה נֶגֶב: south-country, Negeb, south (be dry)
noun, masculine singular with directional heh
וְ ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction
נִבְרֲכוּ

בּרךְ: kneel, bless
verb, niphal, affix, third person common plural

Remove the conjunction and the 3 m. pl. affix pronoun to get closer to the root. Which of the remaining letters do you think is extra? Root letters are found together in a cluster. [There is no reason to discard the k because it it were part of a suffix it would come after everything else and  would be in its final form $ ]  That leaves n which can be either the 1 c. pl prefix pronoun or the sign of the Nifal. If it were the 1 c. pl prefix pronoun, what would W be doing at the end of the word? That leaves us with a Nifal preformative.The form is affix + vav reversive and it is the 3 c. pl.

בְךָ בּ: in, with, through
particle: preposition with second person masculine singular suffix
כָּל־ כֹּל: all
noun, masculine singular construct
מִשְׁפְּחֹת

מִשְׁפָּחָה: people kingdom tribe clan family group genus kind
noun, feminine plural construct

This is a noun formed the same way as tl,k,a]m; (Gen.22:6). But the ending t o is feminine plural.  

הָ ה: the
particle: article
אֲדָמָה

אֲדָמָה: soil earth land regions below the ground
noun, feminine singular

וּ ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction
בְ בּ: in, with, through
particle: preposition
זַרְעֶךָ זֶרַע: seed
noun, masculine singular construct with second person masculine singular suffix

 

Genesis 28:15

וְ ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction
הִנֵּה הִנֵּה: lo! behold!;
particle: interjection
אָנֹכִי

אָנֹכִי: I
pronoun, first person common singular

Another form of ynIa] 

עִמָּךְ

עִם: with
particle: preposition with second person feminine singular suffix

This word usually appears pointed ^M.[I But here it is in pause (19.5). Why is there a dagesh in the m Many two letter nouns are derived from geminate roots. When a suffix is added to such nouns, their geminate origin is manifest by actual doubling, or more often by dagesh forte. Note that hM'y" (in Gen.28:14) has a dagesh for the same reason.

וּ ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction
שְׁמַרְתִּיךָ

שׁמר: keep, watch, preserve
verb, qal, affix, first person common singular with second person masculine singular suffix, vav-reversive

This word has four components. Verbs which are inflected (built up) this way may lose some of their identifying characteristics. For example, although this verb is a Qal affix it does not have qamets under the first root letter. The suffix, because it lengthens the word, causes a shortening of the vowels at the beginning of the word. But you can deduce that this isnt one of the derived stems because there is no stem preformative or dagesh forte in the middle root letter.

בְּ בּ: in, with, through
particle: preposition
כֹל כֹּל: all
noun, masculine singular
אֲשֶׁר־ אֲשֶׁר: which, who
particle: relative
תֵּלֵךְ הלךְ: go, travel
verb, qal, prefix, second person masculine singular
וַ ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction
הֲשִׁבֹתִיךָ

שׁוב: turn back, return
verb, hiphil, affix, first person common singular with second person masculine singular suffix, vav reversive

The initial w: is a vav reversive. It is pointed with a patach instead of the expected shewa because the following letter h is a guttural. It cannot be a sign of the vav conversive because it is not followed by a prefix pronoun + dagesh forte. Moving in from the end of the word, you can remove the object suffix and the affix subject pronoun. That leaves bvh but that it not a root. The preformative h is a Hifil indicator and the root is the hollow verb bWv Hollow verbs can also lose their middle root letter in stems other than the Qal. The Hifil of bWv is cause to return or bring back.

אֶל־ אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle: preposition
הָ ה: the
particle: article
אֲדָמָה אֲדָמָה: soil earth land regions below the ground
noun, feminine singular
הַ ה: the
particle: article
זֹּאת זֹאת: this
adjective, feminine singular
כִּי

כִּי: surely
particle: conjunction

The translation you give the conjunction can have a big effect on the meaning of the verse.

לֹא לֹא: no, not
particle: negative
אֶעֱזָבְךָ

עזב: leave, forsake, loose
verb, qal, prefix, first person common singular with second person masculine singular suffix

The components are slightly different from those in the verbs immediately preceding because a switch has been made from affix form to prefix form. The vocalisation is unfamiliar, though. Not only does a as a prefix pronoun cause a change in pointing, so does the following letter [ But as with ^yTir>m;v.W earlier in the verse, there is no augment (dagesh or preformative letter, for example) to the root to suggest a stem other than Qal, and Qal it is!

עַד עַד: appointed place
particle: preposition
אֲשֶׁר אֲשֶׁר: who, which
particle: relative
אִם־

אִם: if
particle: adverb

This and the previous two words can be translated togather as until.

עָשִׂיתִי

עשׂה: do be done be done make be made be made made cause work do assign gain
verb, qal, affix, first person common singular

You can take off the yti as an affix subject pronoun but the root cannot be yf[ because no root ends in y The root is hf[ Verb roots that end in h drop the h before a subject pronoun is added (See Gen.22:2). Some PGNs of 3rd h verbs have y between the second root letter and the subject pronoun.

אֵת אֵת:
particle: direct object
אֲשֶׁר־

אֲשֶׁר: which
particle: relative

This is the DDO.

דִּבַּרְתִּי

דּבר: speak
verb, piel, affix, first person common singular

לָךְ ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle: preposition with second person feminine singular suffix