Genesis 22:1

וַ ו   so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction
יְהִי

היה   to be, happen
verb, qal, prefix, third person masculine singular, vav-conv

This is a common way to begin a narrative. It is usually translated “And it happened” or “And it came to pass”. The third of our "missing letter rules" applies which means that the missing letter is h and it is at the end of the word.

אַחַר

אַחַר  after
particle: adverb
 

הַ

ה   the
particle: article

דְּבָרִים

דָּבָר  thing
noun, masculine plural  

הָ

ה   the
particle: article

אֵלֶּה

אֵלֶּה  these
adjective, common plural 

This is an adjective modifying the preceding noun. An adjective which follows a noun and agrees with it in gender (masculine or feminine), number (singular or plural) and definiteness is called an attributive adjective.

Here is a table setting out the various versions of the attributive adjective “this” 

 

hz<

this

(m. sg.)

taAz

this

(f. sg.)

hL,ae

these

(c. pl.)

 

וְ

ו   so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction

הָ

ה   the
particle: article

אֱלֹהִים

אֱלֹהִים God
noun, masculine plural

It is not unusual to see the definite article prefixed to a proper name (as here). English translation, however, does not differentiate between the name with and without the article.

נִסָּה

נסה   test, attempt test
verb, piel, affix, third person masculine singular 

The dagesh in the s is a dagesh forte. s is not one of the BeGaDKePhaT letters and so it cannot possibly be a dagesh lene. That means that s is doubled either because it is representing an assimilated letter or because it is being strengthened as in the Piel stem. If we look up hsn in a Hebrew dictionary, we find that this root is found in the Bible exclusively in the Piel stem.

Although the word for God is plural it takes a singular verb. There is no prefix pronoun and so it is the affix form. The Piel affix usually has a hireq under the first root consonant and a doubling of the middle letter, as here.  

The usual word order in a Hebrew sentence is verb-subject. However, for emphasis, the subject may precede the verb as it does here: "God" then "tested"

אֶת־

אֵת
particle: direct object

ta, is the sign of the definite direct object. It is not translated. It merely indicates that the word that follows is the object of the verb action and is definite.  

אַבְרָהָם

אַבְרָהָם  Abraham
proper name

וַ

ו   so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction

יֹּאמֶר

אמר   utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person masculine singular, vav-conv

אֵלָיו

אֶל  motion to direction towards
particle: preposition with third person masculine singular suffix 

This is an objective suffix (him) because it is attached to a preposition. 

אַבְרָהָם

אַבְרָהָם Abraham
proper name

וַ

ו   so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction

יֹּאמֶר

אמר    utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person masculine singular, vav-conversive

הִנֵּנִי

הִנֵּה  lo! behold!;
particle: interjection with first person common singular suffix

 

Genesis 22:2

וַ

ו   so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction

יֹּאמֶר

אמר    utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person masculine singular, vav-conv

קַח־

לקח    take
verb, qal, imperative, masculine singular

נָא

נָא   I (we) pray, now
particle: interjection

There is no exact equivalent in English for an". It is a stylistic feature, often used with the imperative, and conveys the formality of the old fashioned phrase “I pray thee”. It may be translated “now”. The whole phrase therefore may be translated “Take, I pray you”.

אֶת־

אֵת
particle: direct object

The definite direct object marker indicates the definite direct object of the verb xql and indicates what/who Abraham was to take.

בִּנְךָ

בֵּן  son
noun, masculine singular construct with second person masculine singular suffix

The addition of a suffix to a noun may cause shortening of the first vowel(s).

אֶת־

אֵת
particle: direct object

יְחִידְךָ

יָחִיד only, only one, solitary
adjective, masculine singular construct with second person masculine singular suffix

See Kittel p233 for an interesting discussion about this word.

אֲשֶׁר־

אֲשֶׁר who, which
particle: relative

אָהַבְתָּ

אהב  love
verb, qal, affix, second person masculine singular

Affix usually means past tense translation, but with verbs denoting affections or states of mind the affix form often requires present tense translation into English.

אֶת־

אֵת
particle: direct object

This is the third DDO (definite, direct object) in this verse. What are the reasons for the definiteness in each? Remember the three ways in which a noun can be definite. 1. If it has the definite article. 2. If it is a proper noun. 3. If it has a possessive pronoun.

יִצְחָק

יִצְחָק Isaac
proper name

וְ

ו so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction

לֶךְ־

הלך   to go, walk
verb, qal, imperative, masculine singular

It is common in Hebrew prose for one imperative to be followed by another. %l, is another example of a Qal imperative losing a root letter. It is from the root $lh “to walk or to go”.

לְךָ

ל   to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle: preposition with second person masculine singular suffix

This word conveys the idea of action done to or for oneself. Thus the phrase is a way of saying “pick yourself up and go!” Because we don’t have this construction in English, and the literal translation “go for yourself” is clumsy, most translations ignore this word.

אֶל־

אֶל  motion to direction towards
particle: preposition

אֶרֶץ

אֶרֶץ  earth, land
noun, feminine singular

This is the first word in a construct chain. The whole chain is definite because the following absolute is the name of a place and therefore definite.

הַ

ה   the
particle: article

מֹּרִיָּה

מוֹרִיָּה
proper name

וְ

ו   so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle: conjunction

הַעֲלֵהוּ

עלה   go up
verb, hiphil imperative, masculine singular with third person masculine singular suffix

There are too many letters for a root. First take off the conjunction w>  in front. Wh at the end is the 3 m. sg. object suffix “him”. It is a variation of the suffix w or A. This leaves us with three consonants l[h.

Looking in the dictionary you will find that no such root exists. l [ in these positions are always root letters so you have to assume that the h is not part of the root. You don’t know if the missing letter is in the first or third position. According to what you have learned so far, if the missing letter were in the first position it would probably be a y or n. In the second position it would be a y or w, and in the third position in would be a h.

Among the first fifty vocabulary words is one of these combinations hl[ and it happens to be the root here.

The h in front of the verb is a sign of the Hifil stem. The Hifil takes a basic root idea and makes it causative. The Hifil of hl[ is “cause to go up” (as in smoke of a sacrifice) and may be translated “sacrifice or offer up”. The form is imperative. The whole word means “and sacrifice him”. This is the third time a m. sg. imperative is used in this verse.

Why could the final letter W not be the 3 m. pl. affix ending? Because verbs that end in h always lose the h before a subject or object pronoun is added to the verb.

We chart the verb as follows

 

Root

Stem

Form

P, G, N

Special Features

hl[

Hifil

imperative

2 m. sg.

3 m. sg. object suffix Wh

שָׁם

שָׁם  there
particle: adverb

לְ

ל   to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle: preposition

עֹלָה

עֹלָה  sacrifice
noun, feminine singular

Taking off the preposition l reveals a repetition of the root hl[. In this case the word is the noun “sacrifice”.

עַל

עַל  on
particle: preposition

אַחַד

אֶחָד  one
adjective, masculine singular

This is the first word in a construct chain. It is definite because of the definite article on the absolute.

הֶ

ה   the
particle: article

h, is another possible pointing for the definite article in front of a guttural

הָרִים

הַר  mountain, hill
noun, masculine plural

אֲשֶׁר

אֲשֶׁר  which
particle: relative

אֹמַר

אמר   utter, say
verb, qal prefix, first person common singular

The holem after what appears to be the first root letter is usually the sign of the Qal participle pattern. However, this is an irregular verb. The root is indeed rma and the stem Qal, but the form is prefix.

The a is the 1 c. sg. prefix pronoun.

We would expect to see a (prefix pronoun) then the root rma. But the a of the root has elided. That means it isn’t heard or seen, nor does it leave a remnant in the form of a dagesh as does an assimilated n

Study this table which gives a synopsis of the verb root rma  

 

Verb

PGN/Form

Special Feature

Usual Translation

rm;a'

3 m. sg. affix

----

past

rmeao

m. sg. participle

----

depends on context

rm;ao

1 c. sg. prefix

----

future or present

rm;a'w>

3 m. sg. affix

vav reversive

future

rm;ayo

3 m. sg. prefix

----

future or present

rm,aYow:

3 m. sg. prefix

vav conversive

past

 

אֵלֶיךָ

אֶל  motion to direction towards
particle: preposition with second person masculine singular suffix

The suffix ^ has appeared three times already in this verse and it was the possessive pronoun “your”. It is still 2 m. sg. but is now the object pronoun “you” because it is a suffix attached to a preposition (el).

 

Several prepositions may take a connecting y before a suffix is added. Four frequently seen are

la,  l[;   tx;T;;   dx;a;