Exodus 3:7-9

Exodus 3:7

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

יְהוָה

 

hwhy : Yahweh
noun, proper name 

רָאֹה

 

ראה: seeing
verb, qal, infinitive absolute 

רָאִיתִי

 

ראה: seeing
verb, qal, affix, first person, common, singular 

 

ytiyair' haor' See WNr,F.[;a] rFe[; (Gen.28:22) for a discussion of this construction and 26.5 for a discussion of the conjugated form of the verb.

אֶת־

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object 

עֳנִי

 

עֳנִי: poor, afflicted, humble
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

 

This sounds like, but is not, the first person independent pronoun ynIa]   It looks as if it might be a two letter noun with the 1 c. sg. possessive suffix. However, two letter words almost always have a dagesh in the second letter when a suffix is added. (See %M'[i Gen.28:15]. So perhaps this word is not made up of these two elements. Roots do not end in y When there is a word, like this one, whose third letter is y and the y is not the 1 c. sg. possessive suffix, it is likely that the root from which the noun is derived is composed of the first two letters of the word + h

עַמִּי

 

עַם: people
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with first person, common, singular suffix 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

בְּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

מִצְרָיִם

 

מִצְרַיִם: Egypt, Egyptians
noun, proper name 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֶת־

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object 

צַעֲקָתָם

 

צְעָקָה: cry of distress
noun, common, feminine, singular, construct with third person, masculine, plural suffix 

 

Remember a noun most usually takes the construct form when a suffix is added (The Noun G). Why can this not be a 2 m. pl. Qal affix?

שָׁמַעְתִּי

 

שׁמע: hear
verb, qal, affix, first person, common, singular 

מִ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

פְּנֵי

 

פָּנֶה: face
noun, common, feminine and masculine, plural, construct 

נֹגְשָׂיו

 

נגשׂ: draw near, approach
verb, qal, participle, masculine, plural, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

Be careful not to confuse the root here with the more common vgn You may have noticed that this is a plural noun with a singular suffix and that just before was ~t'q'[]c; a singular noun with a plural suffix. Both of these words refer to the collective ~[;

Switching from singular to plural and vice versa is common Biblical Hebrew style. There is another frequently used stylistic device in this verse, chiasm, in which the words are arranged

 

Verb

Direct object

Direct object

Verb

כִּי

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

יָדַעְתִּי

 

ידע: know
verb, qal, affix, first person, common, singular 

 

For a discussion of the translation of the affix form of [dy see Gen.22:12

אֶת־

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object 

מַכְאֹבָיו

 

מַכְאוֹב: pain
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

Although this word is made up of several elements, it should not be too difficult to break down. ta, in front indicates that the word functions as a definite direct object of the verb. Root letters come in a cluster. The rest should be smooth sailing.

Exodus 3:8

וָ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֵרֵד

 

ירד: come go down, descend
verb, qal, prefix, first person, common, singular, vav-conv

 

dreaew" 14.5 discusses the unusual pointing of the conjunction.

לְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

הַצִּילוֹ

 

נצל: rescue, deliver
verb, hiphil, infinitive construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

AlyCih;l. This word is constructed like jyBih;me (Ex.3:6) with two differences. Here the first letter is unambiguously a preposition, and there is a suffix to cope with. The antecedent for the suffix is in Ex.3:7a

מִ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

יַּד

 

יַּד: hand
noun, common, feminine, singular, construct 

מִצְרַיִם

 

מִצְרַיִם: Egypt, Egyptians
noun, proper name 

 

The name of the country is also used for the name of the people

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

לְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

הַעֲלֹתוֹ

 

עלה: go up
verb, hiphil, infinitive construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

Atl{[]h;l.W After removing the conjunction, preposition, and suffix, you are still faced with too many letters for a root. Consider the function of the h It is not part of the root because there is no root l[h It is unlikely to be the definite article because the h would not appear in this position in a verse. (see ~T,[.d;y>h; Gen.29:5]. That leaves us with a Hifil indicator, Any further problems? See 25.3b

מִן־

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אָרֶץ

 

אֶרֶץ: earth, land
noun, common, feminine, singular 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

הִוא

 

הִיא: he, she, it
pronoun, third person, feminine, singular 

 

See Gen.29:2 same word

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

אֶרֶץ

 

אֶרֶץ: earth, land
noun, common, feminine, singular 

טוֹבָה

 

טוֹב: pleasing, good
adjective, feminine, singular 

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

רְחָבָה

 

רָחָב: breadth, broad expanse
adjective, feminine, singular 

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

אֶרֶץ

 

אֶרֶץ: earth, land
noun, common, feminine, singular 

זָבַת

 

זוב: issue, flow
verb, qal, participle, feminine, singular, construct 

 

Here are three strong letters but a search through the dictionary has, no doubt, revealed that they do not compose a root. tb;z" is a f. sg. participle in the construct. It is from the hollow verb bWz Hollow verbs have an irregular participial form in the Qal (9.5a). The f. sg. Qal participle in the absolute is hb'z" and so, remembering the endiNG that f. sg. nouns have in the construct (22.4a), it follows that tb;z" is precisely that, even though it certainly is not immediately apparent. Usually we use of to link the construct with the absolute, but here with works better.

חָלָב

 

חָלָב: milk
noun, common, masculine, singular 

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

דְבָשׁ

 

דְּבַשׁ: honey
noun, common, masculine, singular 

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

מְקוֹם

 

מָקוֹם: standing-place, place
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

כְּנַעֲנִי

 

כְּנַעֲנִי: Canaanite
noun, proper name 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

חִתִּי

 

חִתִּי: Hittite(s)
noun, proper name 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אֱמֹרִי

 

אֱמֹרִי: Amorites
noun, proper name 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

פְּרִזִּי

 

פְּרִזִּי: Perizite
noun, proper name 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

חִוִּי

 

חִוִּי: Hivite
noun, proper name 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

יְבוּסִי

 

יְבוּסִי: Jebusite, Jebusites
noun, proper name 

Exodus 3:9

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

עַתָּה

 

עַתָּה: now so then
particle, adverb 

הִנֵּה

 

הִנֵּה: lo! behold!;
particle, interjection 

צַעֲקַת

 

צְעָקָה: cry of distress
noun, common, feminine, singular, construct 

בְּנֵי־

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

יִשְׂרָאֵל

 

יִשְׂרָאֵל: Israel
noun, proper name 

בָּאָה

 

awB come in, come, go in, go
verb, qal, affix, third person, feminine, singular 

 

The form is discussed in Gen.29:9 same word. What is the subject?

אֵלָי

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition with first person, common, singular suffix 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

גַם־

 

גַּם: also, moreover, year
particle, conjunction 

רָאִיתִי

 

ראה: seeing
verb, qal, affix, first person, common, singular 

אֶת־

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

לַּחַץ

 

לַחַץ: oppression, distress
noun, common, masculine, singular 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

מִצְרַיִם

 

מִצְרַיִם: Egypt, Egyptians
noun, proper name 

לֹחֲצִים

 

לחץ: oppression, distress
verb, qal, participle, masculine, plural 

 

The l is not a preposition here. Although prefixed prepositions take different vowels, they are never pointed with holem. The vowel pattern and endiNG indicate that ~ycix]l{ is a participle. What is its subject?

אֹתָם

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object with third person, masculine, plural suffix 

 

23.2b discusses the vocalisation.