Exodus 3:4-6

Exodus 3:4

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יַּרְא

 

ראה: seeing
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

כִּי

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

סָר

 

סור: turn aside
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

 

rs' One way to determine the root is to recognise that this verb appears in Ex.3:3 in the phrase aN"-hr'sua' Another is to know that when you see two strong letters and qamets or patach under the first one, you most likely have a 3 m. sg. Qal affix of a hollow verb. A pluperfect translation would be appropriate here. Notice how often the subject switches in this verse

לִ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

רְאוֹת

 

ראה: seeing
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

 

25.3b discusses this very word

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּקְרָא

 

קרא: call, read out, aloud
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אֵלָיו

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

אֱלֹהִים

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural 

מִ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

תּוֹךְ

 

תָּוֶךְ: midst
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

סְּנֶה

 

סְנֶה: bush
noun, common, masculine, singular 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

מֹשֶׁה

 

מֹשֶׁה: Moses
noun, proper name 

מֹשֶׁה

 

מֹשֶׁה: Moses
noun, proper name 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

הִנֵּנִי

 

הִנֵּה: lo! behold!;
particle, interjection with first person, common, singular suffix 

Exodus 3:5

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אַל־

 

אַל: motion to direction towards
particle, adverb 

תִּקְרַב

 

קרב: come near, approach
verb, qal, prefix, second person, masculine, singular 

 

br;q.Ti-la;  la; in front of a prefix form of a verb is the sign of the negative imperative. It is the only circumstance in which la; is used with a verb.

הֲלֹם

 

הֲלֹם: here, hither
particle, adverb 

שַׁל־

 

נשׁל: slip drop off draw off. clear away
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, singular 

 

This is a verb. How can you tell? You just saw a negative imperative in direct speech and there are likely to be other verbs as the speech continues. lv; looks as if it could be a 3 m. sg. Qal affix of a hollow verb according to what we just said about rs' (Ex.3:4) but there is no root lyv or lwv An alternative is the imperative, because they often appear in clusters, especially in direct speech. Verbs whose first root letter is weak may lose that weak letter in the imperative (20.6a). Of the two most likely possibilities, which shows the vocalisation of lv; in the imperative? (16.2)

נְעָלֶיךָ

 

נַעַל: sandal, shoe
noun, common, feminine, plural, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

מֵ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

עַל

 

עַל: on
particle, preposition 

רַגְלֶיךָ

 

רֶגֶל: foot
noun, common, feminine, dual number, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

כִּי

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

 

This is introducing a clause just as it did in Ex.3:4 but we would use a different conjunction here in English

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

מָּקוֹם

 

מָקוֹם: standing-place, place
noun, common, masculine, singular 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

אַתָּה

 

אַתָּה: you
pronoun, second person, masculine, singular 

עוֹמֵד

 

עמד: take one’s stand, stand
verb, qal, participle, masculine, singular 

עָלָיו

 

עַל: on
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

wyl'[' dmeA[ hT'a; rv,a] This type of construction is discussed in 22.8a.

אַדְמַת־

 

אֲדָמָה: soil earth land regions below the ground
noun, common, feminine, singular, construct 

קֹדֶשׁ

 

קֹדֶשׁ: apartness, sacredness
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

vd,qO-tm;d>a; This is a construct chain. The first link is the feminine noun tm;d>a; undergoing the regular change for the construct form (22.4). vd,qO is a masculine noun. Using two nouns together rather than a noun and an adjective, as we might in English, is regular syntax in Hebrew.

הוּא

 

הוּא: it, he
pronoun, third person, masculine, singular 

Exodus 3:6

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אָנֹכִי

 

אָנֹכִי: I
pronoun, first person, common, singular 

אֱלֹהֵי

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

אָבִיךָ

 

אָב: father
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

אֱלֹהֵי

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

אַבְרָהָם

 

אַבְרָהָם: Abraham
noun, proper name 

אֱלֹהֵי

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

יִצְחָק

 

יִצְחָק: Isaac
noun, proper name 

וֵ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אלֹהֵי

 

אֱלֹהִים: angels God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

יַעֲקֹב

 

יַעֲקֹב: Jacob
noun, proper name 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יַּסְתֵּר

 

סתר: hide, conceal
verb, hiphil, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv 

 

Is this a Piel? Don’t let the dagesh in the t sway you too quickly; wait at least until you check the vowel before it. Also, check the vowel under the prefix pronoun (15.5). This is a Hifil prefix. Two distinguishing characterisitics of this stem and form are discussed with ~Kev.Y:w: (Gen.22:3).

מֹשֶׁה

 

מֹשֶׁה: Moses
noun, proper name 

פָּנָיו

 

פָּנֶה: face
noun, common, feminine and masculine, plural, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

This is a DDO but it is not preceded by ta The ommission of the DDO marker is something you will see from time to time, although more frequently in poetry than in prose.

כִּי

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

יָרֵא

 

ירא: fear
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

 

17.7 discusses the pointing for this form.

מֵ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

הַבִּיט

 

נבט: look
verb, hiphil, infinitive construct 

 

jyBih;me Abstracting the root from this word is a real challenge. The m looks like either a noun indicator, participial preformative, or the attached preposition !mi  The h looks like either the sign of the definite article, a Hifil preformative or a root letter. The dagesh in the b looks like either the footprint of an assimilated letter, confirmation of the definite article, or the sign of the Piel. The y is a vowel letter (it has no vowel of its own) and so is not a serious contender for a root letter. Since root letters come in a cluster, lets try jbh  It isn’t a root, which means that m here cannot be a participial preformative or a noun indicator. Therefore it is the preposition !mi  That jbh is not a root also means h is not a root letter, and so the dagesh cannot be the sign of the Piel. Because a noun can’t be derived from jb the h; is not the definite article; that leaves it with its being the sign of the Hifil. So the dagesh must be forte and the root is tbn The prefixed preposition strongly suggests infinitive form. You have seen the following verb patterns.

1. Preformative h |  ^ytibovih]w: (Gen.28:15); Wbyvihew> (Gen.29:3); Wqv.hiw> (Gen.29:3)

2. Prefix pronoun or other preformative + patach and a dot vowel between the second and third root letter: ~Kev.Y:w: (Gen.22:3); Whle[]Y:w: (Gen.22:13); [;yGIm; (Gen.28:12). 93% of the time these patterns will yield a Hifil. Where are the other 7%? See  ~T,[.d;y>h; (Gen.29:5).

Another problem here is how to tranlsate the preposition !mi   Although it is awkward English to say from looking, do you think to look means the same thing?

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אֱלֹהִים

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural