Exodus 3:10-13

Exodus 3:10

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

עַתָּה

 

עַתָּה: now so then
particle, adverb 

לְכָה

 

הלךְ: travel, go
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, singular 

 

This is a lengthened form of the m. sg. imperative %l,   The h ' ending is analogous to the cohortative ending (see hr'sua' Ex.3:3). It is not unusual to see it on an imperative. It may be there for no other reason than that it sounds better.

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֶשְׁלָחֲךָ

 

שׁלח: send
verb, qal, prefix, first person, common, singular with second person, masculine, singular suffix

 

This word may be harder to pronounce than to break down. What is the function of the w   Is it possible for it to be vav reversive or vav conversive? (see ha,r>a,w> Ex.3:3) 

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

פַּרְעֹה

 

פַּרְעֹה: Pharaoh
noun, proper name 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

הוֹצֵא

 

יצא: go come out
verb, hiphil, imperative, masculine, singular 

 

aceAhw> Remove the conjunction. Set aside the vowel letter w (see ^d>yxiy> Gen.22:2) That leaves the combination

a c h which is not a root. A final a and a middle c will always be root letters but h in the first position may function as something other than a root letter. A familiar root using ac is acy and that is the root here. What about the function of the h It is not pointed for the definite article or the interrogative h and so Hifil indicator seems to be the best choice. Back to the vowel letter w Why could it not have been considered for a root letter? Because no root starts with vav.  Whenever there is a stem indicator or a prefix pronoun followed by a A you have a 1st y verb. To confirm the Hifil, note the “dot vowel” sere between the second and third root letters. aceAh is a m. sg. Hifil imperative. Acy is go out so the Hifil is cause to go out, in other words bring out.

אֶת־

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object 

עַמִּי

 

עַם: people
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with first person, common, singular suffix 

בְנֵי־

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

יִשְׂרָאֵל

 

יִשְׂרָאֵל: Israel
noun, proper name 

מִ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

מִּצְרָיִם

 

מִצְרַיִם: Egypt, Egyptians
noun, proper name 

Exodus 3:11

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

מֹשֶׁה

 

מֹשֶׁה: Moses
noun, proper name 

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אֱלֹהִים

 

אֱלֹהִים:  God
noun, common, masculine, plural 

מִי

 

מִי: waters, water
pronoun, interrogative 

אָנֹכִי

 

אָנֹכִי: I
pronoun, first person, common, singular 

כִּי

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

אֵלֵךְ

 

הלךְ: travel, go
verb, qal, prefix, first person, common, singular 

 

%leae yKi |  yKi followed by the prefix form often expresses purpose that I should

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

פַּרְעֹה

 

פַּרְעֹה: Pharaoh
noun, proper name 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

כִי

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

אוֹצִיא

 

יצא: go come out
verb, hiphil, imperfect, first person, common, singular 

 

Review the remarks about aceAhw> (Gen.3:10)

אֶת־

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object 

בְּנֵי

 

ןבֵּ: son
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

יִשְׂרָאֵל

 

יִשְׂרָאֵל: Israel
noun, proper name 

מִ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

מִּצְרָיִם

 

מִצְרַיִם: Egypt, Egyptians
noun, proper name 

Exodus 3:12

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

כִּי־

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

אֶהְיֶה

 

היה: be, happen
verb, qal, prefix, first person, common, singular 

 

hy<h.a,(-yKi |   yKi can have many meanings. In this context it is expressing absolute certainty. Notice how different the sense seems here from that in the phrase %leae yKi (Ex.3:11). Part of the difference lies in their syntactical settings. hy<h.a,(-yKi is the main clause of a statement and %leae yKi is the subordinate clause of a question.

עִמָּךְ

 

עִם: with
particle, preposition with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

You would expect to see this phrase pointed ^M.[i Once again the change in pointing is due to the accent.

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

זֶה־

 

זֶה: this, here
adjective, masculine, singular 

לְּךָ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

^L.-hz<w> These elements, when translated into English require a verb to link them together. What tense will you give the needed verb?

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אוֹת

 

אוֹת: sign
noun, common, feminine and masculine, singular 

כִּי

 

כִּי: burning, branding
particle, conjunction 

 

The translation of the conjunction will affect the meaning of the rest of the verse.

אָנֹכִי

 

אָנֹכִי: I
pronoun, first person, common, singular 

 

What do you think is the purpose of the independent subject pronoun here?

שְׁלַחְתִּיךָ

 

שׁלח: send
verb, qal, affix, first person, common, singular with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

The components are straightforward but the landmark vowel of the Qal affix has been shortened because of the addition of a suffix.

בְּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

הוֹצִיאֲךָ

 

יצא: go come out
verb, hiphil, infinitive construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

^a]yciAhB. Remove the preposition and the suffix. That leaves aycwh This consonant cluster appears in Ex.3:10 with one difference. There it has a defectiva spelling and here we see a plene spelling. But again it is a Hifil form of acy The preposition in front of the root indicates that the form is most likely infinitive.   B... often means in but it can also have a temporal meaning when used with an infinitive. The PGN of the suffix is 2 m. sg. The litteral translation of this whole combination is in-your-causing-to-go-out. More colloquially we can say when you bring out.

אֶת־

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

עָם

 

עַם: people
noun, common, masculine, singular 

מִ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

מִּצְרַיִם

 

מִצְרַיִם: Egypt, Egyptians
noun, proper name 

תַּעַבְדוּן

 

עבד: work, serve
verb, qal, prefix, second person, masculine, plural, paragogic nun ending 

 

The paragogic or emphatic ! is an optional ending for a prefix form that ends in a vowel. There are a lot of these endings in Deuteronomy.

אֶת־

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אֱלֹהִים

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural 

עַל

 

עַל: on
particle, preposition 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

הָר

 

הַר: mountain
noun, common, masculine, singular 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

זֶּה

 

זֶה: this, here
adjective, masculine, singular 

Exodus 3:13

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

מֹשֶׁה

 

מֹשֶׁה: Moses
noun, proper name 

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אֱלֹהִים

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural 

הִנֵּה

 

הִנֵּה: lo! behold!;
particle, interjection 

אָנֹכִי

 

אָנֹכִי: I
pronoun, first person, common, singular 

בָא

 

בּוא: come in, come, go in, go
verb, qal, participle, masculine, singular 

 

ab' ykinOa' hNEhi How many reasons can you give to support your choice of meaning for the ambiguous verb form? (9.3b) The sense is of imminent action about to.

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

בְּנֵי

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

יִשְׂרָאֵל

 

יִשְׂרָאֵל: Israel
noun, proper name 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אָמַרְתִּי

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, affix, first person, common, singular, vav-rev

לָהֶם

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, plural suffix 

אֱלֹהֵי

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם

 

אָב: father
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with second person, masculine, plural suffix 

 

Compare this with ^ybia' (Ex.3:6)

שְׁלָחַנִי

 

שׁלח: send
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular with first person, common, singular suffix 

 

First remove the suffix. What is left is a potentially ambiguous form. The shewa under the first root letter looks like the sign of a m. sg. Qal imperative (18.1a). But look at ^yTix.l;v. (Ex.3:12). What happened there to the qamets under the v

ynIx;l'v. is the same combination of parts, but its PGN does not have additional consonants. If this were an unpointed text, the 3 m. sg. Qal affix + suffix ynIx;l'v. and the m. sg. Qal imperative + suffix ynIxel'v. would look identical.

אֲלֵיכֶם

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition with second person, masculine, plural suffix 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אָמְרוּ־

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, affix, third person, common, plural, vav-rev

לִי

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with first person, common, singular suffix 

מַה־

 

מָה: what
pronoun, interrogative 

שְּׁמוֹ

 

םשֵׁ: name
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

Name is often a synonym for power. AmV.-hm; implies the question, What are his great deeds? What is his power? as well as What is his name/identity?

מָה

 

מָה: what
pronoun, interrogative 

אֹמַר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, first person, common, singular 

 

This verb form appears in Gen.22:2. There are only five first a verbs in which the a of the root regularly elides in the first person singular prefix form. They are

rma

say

hba

be willing

lka

eat

hpa

bake

dba

perish

 

They can be remembered by this little ditty:

The bride said to the bridegroom, “I am willing to eat what you bake though I perish.”

 

Review of Terms

Elide: A letter disappears without a trace: rm;ao for rmaa

Assimilate: A letter disappears but leaves a footprint dagesh !TeYIw: for !tnyw

Quiesce: A letter loses its vowel and its own sound. Though it can still be seen in the word, it cannot be heard: the a in rm,aYOw:

Quiesce, Elide, and Assimilate

Went out for a stroll about half past eight.

Quiesce was seen, but never heard.

Elide disappeared without a word.

Whatever happened to assimilate?

A footprint dagesh points to its fate.

אֲלֵהֶם

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, plural suffix