Deuteronomy 6:16-20

Deuteronomy 6:16

לֹא

 

לֹא: no, not
particle, negative 

תְנַסּוּ

 

נסה: test attempt test
verb, piel, prefix, second person, masculine, plural 

 

Spelled out, this would read WssnT.  Is ssn a root? Yes it is. Could the root be anything else? What are the stem indicators? Read on in the verse and you will see the same root used again, but in the affix form. In fact the root is used three times in this verse. The reference is to Exodus 17:7.

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

אֱלֹהֵיכֶם

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with second person, masculine, plural suffix 

כַּ‍

 

כּ: the like of, like, as before
particle, preposition 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

נִסִּיתֶם

 

נסה: test attempt test
verb, piel, affix, second person, masculine, plural 

בַּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

מַּסָּה

 

מַסָּה: Massah
noun, proper name 

Deuteronomy 6:17

שָׁמוֹר

 

שׁמר: keep, watch, preserve
verb, qal, infinitive absolute 

תִּשְׁמְרוּן

 

שׁמר: keep, watch, preserve
verb, qal, prefix, second person, masculine, plural, paragogic nun ending 

 

!Wrm.v.Ti rAmv' See WNr,F.[;a] rFe[; (Gen.28:22) for a discussion of the construction.

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

מִצְוֹת

 

מִצְוָה: commandment
noun, common, feminine, plural, construct 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

אֱלֹהֵיכֶם

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with second person, masculine, plural suffix 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

עֵדֹתָיו

 

עֵדָה: testimony
noun, common, feminine, plural, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

Here is another word for a kind of law, tWd[e or tdU[e It is from the root dW[ bear witness or testify. It is a testimony of divine will on matters of moral and religious duties, as in the ~yrIb'D> on the tablets.

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

חֻקָּיו

 

חֹק: statute
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

צִוָּךְ

 

צוה: lay charge give charge charge, command, order
verb, piel, affix, third person, masculine, singular with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

Do you understand the pointing of the suffix? (19.5). The verb root has appeared several times in this reading (v 1, 2, 6, 17)

Deuteronomy 6:18

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

עָשִׂיתָ

 

עשׂה: do be done be done make be made be made made cause work do assign gain
verb, qal, affix, second person, masculine, singular 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

יָּשָׁר

 

יָשָׁר: be smooth, straight, right
adjective, masculine, singular 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

טּוֹב

 

טוֹב: pleasing, good
adjective, masculine, singular 

 

bAJh;w> rv"Y"h; Ÿ  bAJ and rv"Y" are substantive adjectives. What is the function of the definite article in front of these two words? There is a problem getting smooth English out of this Hebrew construction. We have to turn it into a clause introduced by something like what is….

בְּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

עֵינֵי

 

עַיִן: eye
noun, common, masculine, dual number, construct 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

לְמַעַן

 

לְמַעַן
particle, preposition 

יִיטַב

 

יטב: be (good,) pleasing
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular 

 

Used as in Dt.6:3

לָךְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

בָאתָ

 

בּוא: come in, come, go in, go
verb, qal, affix, second person, masculine, singular 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יָרַשְׁתָּ

 

ירשׁ: take possession of, inherit, dispossess
verb, qal, affix, second person, masculine, singular 

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אָרֶץ

 

אֶרֶץ: earth, land
noun, common, feminine, singular 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

טֹּבָה

 

טוֹב: pleasing, good
adjective, feminine, singular 

אֲשֶׁר־

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

נִשְׁבַּע

 

שׁבע: swear
verb, niphal, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

 

The same word appears in Dt.6:10.

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

לַ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

אֲבֹתֶיךָ

 

אָב: father
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

Deuteronomy 6:19

לַ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

הֲדֹף

 

הדף: thrust, push, drive
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

כָּל־

 

כָּל־: all
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

אֹיְבֶיךָ

 

איב: be hostile to
verb, qal, participle, masculine, plural, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

Holem after the first root letter indicates what stem and form? (9.3a) Colloquial English often prefers a noun rather than the more verb-like force of a participle. The definition of a participle “someone doing something” still holds: those-who-are-being-hostile-to-you translate as your enemies.

מִ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

פָּנֶיךָ

 

פָּנֶה: face
noun, common, feminine and masculine, plural, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

כַּ‍

 

כּ: the like of, like, as before
particle, preposition 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

דִּבֶּר

 

דּבר: speak
verb, piel, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

ס

 

ס
paragraph marker or nun 

Deuteronomy 6:20

כִּי־

 

כִּי: surely, that, because
particle, conjunction 

יִשְׁאָלְךָ

 

שׁאל: ask
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

בִנְךָ

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

^n>bi ^l.a'v.yI Observe that one ^ is an object suffix and the other is a possessive suffix. Do you know why?

מָחָר

 

מָחָר: tomorrow in the future the next day
particle, adverb 

 

The vowel under the second root letter indicates that this is not a 3 m. sg. Qal affix. This word can be specific or refer to time in the future in a general sense.

לֵ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

אמֹר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

מָה

 

מָה: what
pronoun, interrogative 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

עֵדֹת

 

עֵדָה: testimony
noun, common, feminine, plural 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

חֻקִּים

 

חֹק: statute
noun, common, masculine, plural 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

מִּשְׁפָּטִים

 

מִשְׁפָּט: judgment court case decision justice law plan share custom
noun, common, masculine, plural 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

צִוָּה

 

צוה: lay charge give charge charge, command, order
verb, piel, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

אֱלֹהֵינוּ

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with first person, common, plural suffix 

אֶתְכֶם

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object with second person, masculine, plural suffix