Deuteronomy 6:1-5

Deuteronomy 6:1

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

זֹאת

 

זֹאת: this, these
adjective, feminine, singular 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

מִּצְוָה

 

מִצְוָה: commandment
noun, common, feminine, singular 

 

This is usually interpreted as commandment, precept, or religious duty. It refers to all the commandments, both positive and negative, of the Torah. It is in the singular because it is referring to the whole body of law. The terms has also come to mean good deed but that interpretation is from a later time.

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

חֻקִּים

 

חֹק: statute
noun, common, masculine, plural 

 

The root qqh means inscribe or engrave and so probably refers to enactments passed by an authoritative body and engraved on a tablet. There is the masculine noun qho from this root and also a feminine noun hQ"hu Thay have such possible meanings as: prescribed portion (Gen.47:22), an offering due to the priests (Lev.16:11), a specific decree (Gen.47:26), law in general (Ps.94:20). According to traditional thinking ~yQixu also include precepts, the reason for the observance of which we do not know, such as which foods may not be eaten (Lev.11).

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

מִּשְׁפָּטִים

 

מִשְׁפָּט: judgment, law
noun, common, masculine, plural 

 

~yjiP'v.Mih;w> ~yQixuh; You have to decide whether this phrase is qualifying and is parenthetic to

hw"c.Mih; tazOw>  or whether three different things are meant here.

jP'v.mi deals with matters pertaining to the relationship between person and person, i.e., civil and criminal law, and not to precepts governing the relationship between onself and God, i.e., the laws of Passover.

For purposes of consistency we will use the following terms

hw"c.mi        commandment

qxo          statute

jP'v.mi        judgment

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

צִוָּה

 

צוה: command, order
verb, piel, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

אֱלֹהֵיכֶם

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with second person, masculine, plural suffix 

לְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

לַמֵּד

 

למד: exercise in, learn
verb, piel, infinitive construct 

אֶתְכֶם

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object with second person, masculine, plural suffix 

לַ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

עֲשׂוֹת

 

עשׂה: do, make
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

 

tAf[]l; Check 14.3a if you are unsure about the root.

בָּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, inseparable preposition with article 

אָרֶץ

 

אֶרֶץ: earth, land
noun, common, feminine, singular 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

אַתֶּם

 

אַתֶּם: you
pronoun, second person, masculine, plural 

עֹבְרִים

 

עבר: pass over, through, by, pass on
verb, qal, participle, masculine, plural 

שָׁמָּה

 

שָׁם: there
particle, adverb, directional heh ending 

 

hM'v' ~yrIb.[o ~T,a; The questions here is what tense to give the participle. The sense of the imminent future about to. Also notice that h- directive can be attached to an adverb.

לְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

רִשְׁתָּהּ

 

ירשׁ: take possession of, inherit, dispossess
verb, qal, infinitive construct with third person, feminine, singular suffix 

 

HT'v.rIl. The fact that neither vrl nor tvr is a root reveals that neither l nor t is a root letter and so each must have some other function. The l is a preposition. It wouldn’t be giving away a secret to say that at this point in the verse, an infinitive would suit the syntactical design. Two categories of weak verbs end in t in their infinitive form. One is 3rd h but its infinitive ends in tA

The other is 1st y. So the root is vry and it is a vocabulary word.

Deuteronomy 6:2

לְמַעַן

 

לְמַעַן  : in order that

particle, preposition 

 

Vocabulary word. Although the verb form which often follows a preposition is the infinitive, it is not unusual for an independent preposition to introduce a prefix form.

תִּירָא

 

ירא: fear
verb, qal, prefix, second person, masculine, singular 

 

The verb form is discussed in 17.2. Deuteronomy is written in the style of a sermon and so you will want to consider that ffeature in your translation. Here, from the fact that the verb is preceded by ![;m;l.  one infers that the mood conveyed is of strong obligation. An interesting feature of Deuteronomy is the frequent switching between second person singular and plural: you the individual as in ar'yTi as opposed to you the group as in ~yrIb.[o ~T,a; (Deut.6:1).

אֶת־

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

אֱלֹהֶיךָ

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

לִ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

שְׁמֹר

 

שׁמר: keep, watch, preserve
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

אֶת־

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object 

כָּל־

 

כֹּל: all
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

חֻקֹּתָיו

 

חֻקָּה: something prescribed, enactment, statute
noun, common, feminine, plural, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

wyt'Qoxu-lK'-ta, The noun here is what gender? Compare this to ~yQixu (Deut.6:1).

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

מִצְוֹתָיו

 

מִצְוָה: commandment
noun, common, feminine, plural, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

wyt'wOc.miW There are three vavs in this word. How many have consonantal value? If you don’t know it’s OK – this is covered in the next Lesson.

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

אָנֹכִי

 

אָנֹכִי: I
pronoun, first person, common, singular 

מְצַוֶּךָ

 

צוה: command, order
verb, piel, participle, masculine, singular, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

31.1 discusses this stem and form

אַתָּה

 

אַתָּה: you
pronoun, second person, masculine, singular 

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

בִנְךָ

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

בֶן־

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

בִּנְךָ

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

כֹּל

 

כֹּל: all
noun, common, masculine, singular 

יְמֵי

 

יוֹם: day
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

חַיֶּיךָ

 

חַיִּים: life
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

The masculine plural of an adjective is often used to create an abstract noun.

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

לְמַעַן

 

לְמַעַן : in order that, for the sake of

particle, preposition 

יַאֲרִכֻן

 

ארךְ: be long
verb, hiphil, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, paragogic nun ending 

 

What about the stem of this verb? Patach   ; under the prefix pronoun may be an ambiguous indicator when the first root letter is a guttural (17.3a) so check the vowel between the second and third root letters (32.1). Qibbuts   u  is the defective spelling of shureq W so the PGN of the verb is 3 m. pl. The ending ! in this verb is called paragogic nun and is a favourite in Deuteronomic style. (see  !Wdb.[;T; Ex.3:12)

יָמֶיךָ

 

יוֹם: day
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

An irregular noun (see: The Noun H) with a possessive suffix. Could this be confused with the plural of ~y" sea? No, because there would always be a “fish” in the sea ~yMiy" represented by the aquarium dagesh (subgroup of Napoleonic).

What is the relationship of ^ym,y" to the verb !kUrIa]y: which comes just before it?

Deuteronomy 6:3

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

שָׁמַעְתָּ

 

שׁמע: hear
verb, qal, affix, second person, masculine, singular 

יִשְׂרָאֵל

 

יִשְׂרָאֵל: Israel
noun, proper name 

 

laer'f.yI T"[.m;v'w>  What is the relationship between these two words? (18.2) The verbs in this part of the verse have imperative force: and you will

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

שָׁמַרְתָּ

 

שׁמר: keep, watch, preserve
verb, qal, affix, second person, masculine, singular 

לַ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

עֲשׂוֹת

 

עשׂה: do be done be done make be made be made made cause work do assign gain
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

יִיטַב

 

יטב: be (good,) pleasing
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular 

 

17.2 discusses this type of first y verb. Can rv,a] be the subject? That seems to work until you get further into the verse. Because of the ordered, oratorical style of this passage it seems unlikely that the syntactical function of rv,a] would change in two adjacent, parallel clauses.

לְךָ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

תִּרְבּוּן

 

רבה: be numerous, increase

verb, qal, prefix, second person, masculine, plural, paragogic nun ending 

 

See Deut.6:2 for the !

See 26.5 for the root.

Why is there a dagesh in the b

מְאֹד

 

מְאֹד: muchness, force, abundance, exceedingly
particle, adverb 

כַּ‍

 

כּ: the like of, like, as before
particle, preposition 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

דִּבֶּר

 

דּבר: speak
verb, piel, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

אֱלֹהֵי

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

אֲבֹתֶיךָ

 

אָב: father
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

לָךְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

English seems to want a verb before %l' 

 

אֶרֶץ

 

אֶרֶץ: earth, land
noun, common, feminine, singular 

זָבַת

 

זוב: issue, flow
verb, qal, participle, feminine, singular, construct 

חָלָב

 

חָלָב: milk
noun, common, masculine, singular 

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

דְבָשׁ

 

דְּבַשׁ: honey
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

vb'(d>W bl'Þx' tb;z" #r,a, In which other passage did you read this description?

פ‍

 

פ
paragraph marker or nun 

Deuteronomy 6:4

שְׁמַע

 

שׁמע: hear
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, singular 

יִשְׂרָאֵל

 

יִשְׂרָאֵל: Israel
noun, proper name 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

אֱלֹהֵינוּ

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with first person, common, plural suffix 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

אֶחָד

 

אֶחָד: one
adjective, masculine, singular 

 

Lesson 18 is devoted to the grammar of this verse. Note that n the text, the [ of [m;v. and the d of dx'(a, are written in large script. Jewish commentary explains that the large d is to distinguish clearly the word dxa one from rxa another (Look also at Ex.34:14). The reason for the large [ is not so clear. It may have been done to avoid ambiguity with aM'v, a Mishnaic word which means perhaps. Commentators point out that the enlarged letters [ and d form the word d[e which means testimony or witness.

Deuteronomy 6:5

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אָהַבְתָּ

 

אהב: love
verb, qal, affix, second person, masculine, singular 

 

T'b.h;a'w> An imperative followed by the affix + vav reversive gives the affix imperative force: you will

In this case the imperative [m;v.  is in the previous verse, but the verse breaks are not indigenous to the text and a sequence can cross the sof passuq Ç In fact, the imperative mood continues through verse 9.

אֵת

 

אֵת:
particle, direct object 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

אֱלֹהֶיךָ

 

אֱלֹהִים: angels God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

בְּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

כָל־

 

כֹּל: all
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

לְבָבְךָ

 

לֵבָב: heart
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

בְ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

כָל־

 

כֹּל: all
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

נַפְשְׁךָ

 

נֶפֶשׁ: soul, living being, life, self, person, desire, appetite, emotion passion
noun, common, feminine, singular, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

בְ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

כָל־

 

כֹּל: all
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

מְאֹדֶךָ

 

מְאֹד: muchness, force, abundance, exceedingly
particle, adverb with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

^d<)aom.-lk'b.W ^ßv.p.n:-lk'b.W ^ïb.b'l.-lk'B. |  bb;le   vp,n<  and  daom.  Are difficult words to put into English.

bb;le refers to the inner person. Rabbinic commentary interprets the word to mean all desires. BDB interprets the word to mean knowledge, thought, purpose, mind, will. A blending of both of these probably gives the sense. In English “figurative physiology” the heart is the seat of the emotions, the feeling organs. bb;le on the other hand, is the decision-making paart of the body, the seat of the will. Many cross cultural mix-ups, good-natured and otherwise, can result from the different interpretations peoples put on different body parts.

vp,n<  is a person’s very life force, the self, the soul, the inner being, akin to the Latin anima.

daom.  is vitality, force, might. This is the same word that appears in the phrase daom. !WBr>Ti (Deut.6:3) where we use it as an adverb in translation. You can see that what is conveyed by the noun is stronger than the meaning the English adverb carries.