1 Kings 18:41-46

1 Kings 18:41

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אֵלִיָּהוּ

 

אֵלִיָּהוּ: Elijahu
noun, proper name 

לְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

אַחְאָב

 

אַחְאָב: Ahab
noun, proper name 

עֲלֵה

 

עלה: go up
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, singular 

אֱכֹל

 

אכל: eat, devour
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, singular 

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

שְׁתֵה

 

שׁתה: drink
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, singular 

 

htev.W lkoa/ hle[] These three verbs have the same form but each has different pointing because of the characteristic of its first root letter.

כִּי־

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

קוֹל

 

קוֹל: sound, voice
noun, common, masculine, singular 

הֲמוֹן

 

הָמוֹן: sound, murmur, roar, crowd, abundance
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

גָּשֶׁם

 

גֶּשֶׁם: rain, shower
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

~v,G")h; !Amh] lAq-yKi This is a clause because it is introduced by yKi Where is the verb? lAq is a noun. Now look at !Amh] The h can’t be the interrogative h because it is not at the beginning of a phrase. It can’t be the sign of the Hifil because the rest of the pointing does not support a Hifil pattern. !Amh] is a noun in construct, listed as being from the root hmh murmur, growl, roar, even though there is a root !mh meaning rage, be turbulent. The word ~v,G")h; is in pause. If pointed regularly, it would read ~v,G<h; in which case, of course, you would immediately recognise it as a segolate noun. This whole clause is a noun sentence and so a form of the verb to be has to be inserted in the translation. Usually the verb is put between two nouns, but here an impersonal there is can function as the verb if inserted after yKi Other creative solutions are possible.

1 Kings 18:42

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יַּעֲלֶה

 

עלה: go up
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

 

Taking this verb out of context gives two choices for the form. Putting it in context solves the problem.

אַחְאָב

 

אַחְאָב: Ahab
noun, proper name 

לֶ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

אֱכֹל

 

אכל: eat, devour
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

 

lkoa/l, Remember 1st a verbs have more than one pattern.

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

לִ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

שְׁתּוֹת

 

שׁתה: drink
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֵלִיָּהוּ

 

אֵלִיָּהוּ: Elijahu
noun, proper name 

עָלָה

 

עלה: go up
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

רֹאשׁ

 

רֹאשׁ: head
noun, common, masculine, singular 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

כַּרְמֶל

 

כַּרְמֶל: Carmel
noun, proper name 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּגְהַר

 

גּהר: bend, crouch
verb, qal, prefix waw, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אַרְצָה

 

אֶרֶץ: earth, land
noun, common, feminine, singular, directional heh ending 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יָּשֶׂם

 

שׂים: put, place, set
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

פָּנָיו

 

פָּנֶה: face
noun, common, feminine and masculine, plural, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

בֵּין

 

בַּיִן: interval, space between in the interval of, between space between two armies
particle, preposition 

בִּרְכָּיו

 

בֶּרֶךְ: knee
noun, common, feminine, dual number, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

1 Kings 18:43

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

נַעֲרוֹ

 

נַעַר: youth,
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

עֲלֵה־

 

עלה: go up
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, singular 

נָא

 

נָא: I (we) pray, now
particle, interjection 

הַבֵּט

 

נבט: look
verb, hiphil, imperative, masculine, singular 

 

What kind of dagesh is in the b You have to discern its function. As always, it is best to do the easiest thing first. See if jbh is a root. If the dagesh is the footprint of an assimilated letter, what letter is it most likely to be? Under that root, you will see that this verb occurs almost always in one stem.

דֶּרֶךְ־

 

דֶּרֶךְ: road
noun, common, feminine and masculine, singular 

יָם

 

יָם: sea
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

~y"-%r,D, A literal translation gets the idea across. It may be referring to the major road along the coast which later became known as the Via Maris.

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יַּעַל

 

עלה: go up
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יַּבֵּט

 

נבט: look
verb, hiphil, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אֵין

 

אַיִן: no, not, nothing
particle, adverb 

מְאוּמָה

 

מְאוּמָה: anything
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

Some identify the root as ~Wa This would allow the assumption that the m is a noun identifier and the h ' the endiNG. Others identify the root as ~am which is where you will probably find it in the dictionary (This word occurs also in Gen.22:12).

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

שֻׁב

 

שׁוב: turn back, return
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, singular 

שֶׁבַע

 

שֶׁבַע: seven
adjective, feminine, singular 

פְּעָמִים

 

פַּעַם: thrust, impel
noun, common, feminine, plural 

1 Kings 18:44

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יְהִי

 

היה: to be
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv 

בַּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, inseparable preposition with article 

שְּׁבִעִית

 

שְׁבִיעִי: seventh
adjective, feminine, singular 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

 

The usual introductory and, then, or but for a vav conversive doesn’t sound right here. That may be better.

הִנֵּה־

 

הִנֵּה: lo! behold!;
particle, interjection 

עָב

 

עָב: cloud
noun, common, masculine, singular 

קְטַנָּה

 

קָטֹן: little (finger)
adjective, feminine, singular 

כְּ‍

 

כּ‍: the like of, like, as before
particle, preposition 

כַף־

 

כַּף: hand
noun, common, feminine, singular 

אִישׁ

 

אִישׁ: man
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

vyai-@k;K. A phrase further modifying hN"j;q. b['

 

 

עֹלָה

 

עלה: go up
verb, qal, participle, feminine, singular 

מִ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

יָּם

 

יָם: sea
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

Not to be confused with ~yIm;

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

עֲלֵה

 

עלה: go up
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, singular 

אֱמֹר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, singular 

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

אַחְאָב

 

אַחְאָב: Ahab
noun, proper name 

אֱסֹר

 

אסר: tie, bind
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, singular 

וָ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

רֵד

 

ירד: come go down, descend
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, singular 

 

drew" Context should reveal the form. What kind of w is this?

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

לֹא

 

לֹא: no, not
particle, negative 

יַעַצָרְכָה

 

עצר: restrain, retain
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

Obviously too many letters for a root, but three can be nothing else. The ending hk' is a rare emphatic form. Notice the PGN of this verb; it is not the same as that of the two previous two verbs.

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

גָּשֶׁם

 

גֶּשֶׁם: rain, shower
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

~v,G")h; Can this be the DDO of hk'r>c'[;y: How else might it be related to the verb?

1 Kings 18:45

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יְהִי

 

היה: to be
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

עַד־

 

עַד: until
particle, preposition 

כֹּה

 

כֹּה: In what manner, thus
particle, adverb 

 

hKo-d[;w> hKo-d[; The expression hKo-d[; appears in Gen.22:5 meaning hither. Here it also is functioning as an adverb but has a temporal sense and means now….until, then, or meanwhile.

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

עַד־

 

עַד: until
particle, preposition 

כֹּה

 

כֹּה: In what manner, thus
particle, adverb 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

שָּׁמַיִם

 

שָׁמַיִם: heaven atmosphere
noun, common, masculine, plural 

הִתְקַדְּרוּ

 

קדר: be dark
verb, hithpael, affix, third person, common, plural 

 

The t.hi preformative and the doubled middle root letter identify this stem (see: The Verb).

עָבִים

 

עָב: cloud
noun, common, masculine, plural 

 

Hebrew doesn’t need a preposition before this word: English does.

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

רוּחַ

 

רוּחַ: breath, wind, spirit
noun, common, feminine and masculine, singular 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יְהִי

 

היה: to be
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

גֶּשֶׁם

 

גֶּשֶׁם: rain, shower
noun, common, masculine, singular 

גָּדוֹל

 

גָּדוֹל: great
adjective, masculine, singular 

 

lAdG" ~v,G< yhiy>w: For a parallel, including locale, read the story of Deborah and Barak, Judges 4:4-5:28, especially 5:21.

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּרְכַּב

 

רכב: ride chariot

verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אַחְאָב

 

אַחְאָב: Ahab
noun, proper name 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֵּלֶךְ

 

הלךְ: go, walk
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

יִזְרְעֶאלָה

 

יִזְרְעֶאל: Jezreel
noun, proper name, directional heh ending 

1 Kings 18:46

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יַד־

 

יָד: hand
noun, common, feminine, singular, construct 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

הָיְתָה

 

היה: to be
verb, qal, affix, third person, feminine, singular 

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

 

For a discussion of the preposition see ABr>qi-l[; (1 Ki.17:21).

אֵלִיָּהוּ

 

אֵלִיָּהוּ: Elijahu 
noun, proper name 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יְשַׁנֵּס

 

שׁנס: gird up
verb, piel, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

מָתְנָיו

 

מָתְנַיִם: loins
noun, common, masculine, dual number, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יָּרָץ

 

רוץ: run
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

לִ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

פְנֵי

 

פָּנֶה: face, before
noun, common, feminine and masculine, plural, construct 

אַחְאָב

 

אַחְאָב: Ahab
noun, proper name 

עַד־

 

עַד: until
particle, preposition 

בֹּאֲכָה

 

בּוא: come in, come, go in, go
verb, qal, infinitive construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

hk'a]Bo-d[; The difficulty with hk'Þa]Bo is the h on the end. The h could be thought of as a variant spelling or perhaps a h-directive. The phrase is given several different translations: as far as, to the entrance of, until coming to are some examples.

יִזְרְעֶאלָה

 

יִזְרְעֶאל: Jezreel
noun, proper name, directional heh ending