1 Kings 18:35-40

1 Kings 18:35

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֵּלְכוּ

 

הלךְ: go, walk
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

מַּיִם

 

מַיִם: waters, water
noun, common, masculine, plural 

 

~yIM;h; Wkl.YEw:  | ~yIM; is always used in the plural (dual?) and always takes a plural verb. What is the subject of this phrase?

סָבִיב

 

סָבִיב: circuit, round about
particle, adverb 

לַ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, inseparable preposition with article 

מִּזְבֵּחַ

 

מִזְבֵּחַ: altar
noun, common, masculine, singular 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

גַם

 

גַּם: also, moreover, year
particle, conjunction 

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

תְּעָלָה

 

תְּעָלָה: trench aqueduct
noun, common, feminine, singular 

מִלֵּא־

 

מלא: fulness, that which fills
verb, piel, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

מָיִם

 

מַיִם: waters, water
noun, common, masculine, plural 

 

~yIm")-aLemi Can ~yIm' be the subject of the verb? What is the stem of the verb? What is the DO of the part of the verse after the atnah? So what happens with ~yIm'

The comment with x;Bez>mi ~ynIb'a]h'-ta,  (1 Ki.18:32) might help.

1 Kings 18:36

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יְהִי

 

היה: to be
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

בַּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

עֲלוֹת

 

עלה: sacrifice
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

מִּנְחָה

 

מִנְחָה: offering gift tribute
noun, common, feminine, singular 

 

hx'n>Mih; tAl[]B; is this phrase analogous to tyIB'h; tl;[]B; (1 Ki.17:17)

or perhaps to hx'n>Mih; tAl[]l; (1 Ki.18:29)

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּגַּשׁ

 

נגשׁ: draw near, approach
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אֵלִיָּהוּ

 

אֵלִיָּהוּ: Elijahu )
noun, proper name 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

נָּבִיא

 

נָבִיא: spokesman, speaker, prophet
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

aybiN"h; WhY"liae This is the only time in the three chapters which comprise this narrative that Elijah is referred to as aybiN"h;

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמַר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

אֱלֹהֵי

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

אַבְרָהָם

 

אַבְרָהָם: Abraham
noun, proper name 

יִצְחָק

 

יִצְחָק: Isaac
noun, proper name 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִשְׂרָאֵל

 

יִשְׂרָאֵל: Israel
noun, proper name 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

יּוֹם

 

יוֹם: day
noun, common, masculine, singular 

יִוָּדַע

 

ידע: know
verb, niphal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular 

 

A w between the prefix pronoun and the verb means the first root letter is y The stem is more difficult. What does dagesh forte in the w represent? (48.5b). only part of the characteristic Nifal vowel pattern is seen because of the guttural [ Jussive mood best fits the sense here with an impersonal it as the subject.

כִּי־

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

אַתָּה

 

אַתָּה: you
pronoun, second person, masculine, singular 

אֱלֹהִים

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural 

בְּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

יִשְׂרָאֵל

 

יִשְׂרָאֵל: Israel
noun, proper name 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֲנִי

 

אֲנִי: I
pronoun, first person, common, singular 

עַבְדֶּךָ

 

עֶבֶד: servant
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

בִ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

דְבָרְךָ

 

דָּבָר: word
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

עָשִׂיתִי

 

עשׂה: do be done be done make be made be made made cause work do assign gain
verb, qal, affix, first person, common, singular 

אֵת

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

כָּל־

 

כֹּל: all
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

דְּבָרִים

 

דָּבָר: noun
noun, common, masculine, plural 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אֵלֶּה

 

אֵלֶּה: these
adjective, common, plural 

1 Kings 18:37

עֲנֵנִי

 

ענה: answer
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, singular with first person, common, singular suffix 

 

See WnnE[] (1 Ki.18:26).

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

עֲנֵנִי

 

ענה: answer
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, singular with first person, common, singular suffix 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֵדְעוּ

 

ידע: know
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, plural 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

עָם

 

עַם: people
noun, common, masculine, singular 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

זֶּה

 

זֶה: this, here
adjective, masculine, singular 

כִּי־

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

אַתָּה

 

אַתָּה: you
pronoun, second person, masculine, singular 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אֱלֹהִים

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אַתָּה

 

אַתָּה: you
pronoun, second person, masculine, singular 

הֲסִבֹּתָ

 

סבב: turn about, go around, surround
verb, hiphil, affix, second person, masculine, singular 

 

The form and PGN are straightforward but the rest is not quite so obvious. The dagesh gives us bbsh and so a root you have seen before is exposed. (See ~k,yteAbybis. Deut.6:14). The preformative h is Hiphil. The vowel under it (patach) is seen with geminates, sometimes with other verbs if they have four syllables, causing the vowels in front to shorten.

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

לִבָּם

 

לֵב: heart
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with third person, masculine, plural suffix 

 

Compare with ^b.b'l. (Dt.6:5)

אֲחֹרַנִּית

 

אֲחֹרַנִּית: backwards
particle, adverb 

 

This is an adverb whose root you have seen many times before. The meaning of the last half of this verse is puzzling and certainly has intrigued the commentators.

1 Kings 18:38

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

תִּפֹּל

 

נפל: fall
verb, qal, prefix, third person, feminine, singular, vav-conv

 

Is there a noun subject to clear up the ambiguous prefix pronoun?

אֵשׁ־

 

אֵשׁ: fire
noun, common, feminine and masculine, singular, construct 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

תֹּאכַל

 

אכל: eat, devour
verb, qal, prefix, third person, feminine, singular, vav-conv

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

עֹלָה

 

עֹלָה: sacrifice
noun, common, feminine, singular 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

עֵצִים

 

עֵץ: tree, trees, wood
noun, common, masculine, plural 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אֲבָנִים

 

אֶבֶן: stone
noun, common, feminine, plural 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

הֶ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

עָפָר

 

עָפָר: dust
noun, common, masculine, singular 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

מַּיִם

 

מַיִם: waters, water
noun, common, masculine, plural 

אֲשֶׁר־

 

אֲשֶׁר: which that
particle, relative 

בַּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, inseparable preposition with article 

תְּעָלָה

 

תְּעָלָה: trench aqueduct
noun, common, feminine, singular 

לִחֵכָה

 

לחךְ: lick
verb, piel, affix, third person, feminine, singular 

 

Both hkx and $xl are roots. So you have to figure out whether the l or the h is extraneous to the root. Here is a case where the pointing helps define the stem and form. Take into account that there is a guttural in this word. This verb is sort of an add-on. What is its subject?

1 Kings 18:39

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יַּרְא

 

ראה: seeing
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

 

Is the root ary or  har

כָּל־

 

כֹּל: all
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

עָם

 

עַם: people
noun, common, masculine, singular 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּפְּלוּ

 

נפל: fall
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

עַל־

 

עַל: on
particle, preposition 

פְּנֵיהֶם

 

פָּנֶה: face
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with third person, masculine, plural suffix 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמְרוּ

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

הוּא

 

הוּא: he, it
pronoun, third person, masculine, singular 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אֱלֹהִים

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural 

 

~yhil{a/h' aWh hw"hy> The use of the independent pronoun and the repetition of the entire phrase create the highest degree of emphasis.

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

הוּא

 

הוּא: he, it
pronoun, third person, masculine, singular 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אֱלֹהִים

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural 

1 Kings 18:40

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אֵלִיָּהוּ

 

אֵלִיָּהוּ: Elijahu
noun, proper name 

לָהֶם

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, plural suffix 

תִּפְשׂוּ

 

תּפשׂ: lay hold of, wield
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, plural 

 

Decision: this word is constructed W + fpt or W + fp + t in which case there is a missing root letter.

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

נְבִיאֵי

 

נָבִיא: spokesman, speaker, prophet
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

בַּעַל

 

בַּעַל: Baal
noun, proper name 

אִישׁ

 

אִישׁ: man
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

Used as in Gen.37:19

אַל־

 

אַל: motion to direction towards
particle, adverb 

יִמָּלֵט

 

מלט: escape
verb, niphal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular 

 

jleM'yI-la; For la; + the prefix form of the verb, see 39.3 b. The stem and form are presented in the previous Lesson. The root jlm is not found in the Qal in the Bible.

מֵהֶם

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, plural suffix 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּתְפְּשׂוּם

 

תּפשׂ: lay hold of, wield
verb, qal, prefix waw consecutive, third person, masculine, plural with third person, masculine, plural suffix 

 

At first glance this looks as if it might be a Hitpael prefix form. (see WaB.n:t.YI)w: 1 Ki.18:29) but it is missing one key ingredient: a dagesh forte in the second root letter. The root appears in another form earlier in the verse.

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יּוֹרִדֵם

 

ירד: come go down, descend
verb, hiphil, prefix, third person, masculine, singular with third person, masculine, plural suffix, vav-conv

 

Difficult but not impossible.

1. w between a prefix pronoun and the root means _____?

2. The root is______?

3. A dot vowel between the 2nd and 3rd root letter means______?

4. The verb is a) transitive, b) intransitive, c) both a and b, d) neither a nor b.

5. ~ is one spelling of the object suffix for which PGN?

 

Notice that even though ~derIAYw: and ~WfP.t.YIw: are joined by a conjunction, they do not have the same subject.

אֵלִיָּהוּ

 

אֵלִיָּהוּ: Elijahu
noun, proper name 

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

נַחַל

 

נַחַל: brook, wadi
noun, common, masculine, singular 

קִישׁוֹן

 

קִישׁוֹן: Kishon
noun, proper name 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּשְׁחָטֵם

 

שׁחט: squeeze out
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular with third person, masculine, plural suffix, vav-conv

שָׁם

 

שָׁם: there
particle, adverb