1 Kings 18:30-34

1 Kings 18:30

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אֵלִיָּהוּ

 

אֵלִיָּהוּ: Elijahu
noun, proper name 

לְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

כָל־

 

כֹּל: all
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

עָם

 

עַם: people
noun, common, masculine, singular 

גְּשׁוּ

 

נגשׁ: draw near, approach
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, plural 

 

If you don’t recognise the root, read a little further into the verse and it may become apparent.

אֵלַי

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition with first person, common, singular suffix 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּגְּשׁוּ

 

נגשׁ: draw near, approach
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

כָל־

 

כֹּל: all
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

עָם

 

עַם: people
noun, common, masculine, singular 

אֵלָיו

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יְרַפֵּא

 

רפא: heal, repair
verb, piel, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

מִזְבַּח

 

מִזְבֵּחַ: altar
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

הֶ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

הָרוּס

 

הרס: overthrow,
verb, qal, passive participle, masculine, singular 

 

42.3 discusses the form. The word is in this position because it is modifying xB;z>m which is the first word in a construct chain. Because nothing comes between the construct and the absolute, a modifier of the construct must come after the whole chain. You saw this arrangement in hz<ßL'h; tAml{x]h; l[;B; (Gen.37:19).

1 Kings 18:31

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּקַּח

 

לקח: learning, teaching, took
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אֵלִיָּהוּ

 

אֵלִיָּהוּ: Elijahu
noun, proper name 

שְׁתֵּים

 

שְׁנַיִם: two
adjective, feminine, dual number 

עֶשְׂרֵה

 

עֶשְׂרֵה: ten
adjective, feminine, singular

 

href.[, ~yTev. The compound href.[, ~yTev. Is feminine but the noun ~ynIëb'a] is masculine. This is like the construction !aco-yred>[, hv'l{v. (gen.29:2) The complications in expressing numbers is touched on in Lesson 41.

אֲבָנִים

 

אֶבֶן: stone
noun, common, feminine, plural 

כְּ‍

 

כּ‍: the like of, like, as before
particle, preposition 

מִסְפַּר

 

מִסְפָּר: number inventory report
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

שִׁבְטֵי

 

שֵׁבֶט: tribe
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

בְנֵי־

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

יַעֲקֹב

 

יַעֲקֹב: Jacob
noun, proper name 

 

bqO[]y:-ynEb. yjeb.vi rP:s.miK. This is a phrase with three words in construct.

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which that
particle, relative 

הָיָה

 

היה: to be
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

דְבַר־

 

דָּבָר: word
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

אֵלָיו

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

wyl'ae hw"hy>-rb;d> hy"h' rv,a] The syntactical expression in Hebrew is so different from English that some liberty must be taken in translation. First of all, you should recognise that this is the type of clause that was discussed in 22.8c, so for our purposes in English rv,a] can combine with  wyl'ae to create to whom.

לֵ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

אמֹר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

יִשְׂרָאֵל

 

יִשְׂרָאֵל: Israel
noun, proper name 

יִהְיֶה

 

היה: to be
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular 

שְׁמֶךָ

 

שֵׁם: name
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

1 Kings 18:32

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּבְנֶה

 

בּנה: build
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אֲבָנִים

 

אֶבֶן: stone
noun, common, feminine, plural 

מִזְבֵּחַ

 

מִזְבֵּחַ: altar
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

x;Bez>mi ~ynI±b'a]h'-ta, Hebrew handles this as a double DO or what we might call a DO and an object complement. English needs something like into an between the two nouns.

בְּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

שֵׁם

 

שֵׁם: name
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יַּעַשׂ

 

עשׂה: do be done be done make be made be made made cause work do assign gain
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv 

תְּעָלָה

 

תְּעָלָה: trench aqueduct
noun, common, feminine, singular 

כְּ‍

 

כּ‍: the like of, like, as before
particle, preposition 

בֵית

 

בַּיִת: house
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

 

This in not translated house here but rather recepticle.

סָאתַיִם

 

סְאָה: measure
noun, common, feminine, dual number 

 

Because we don’t know what size this measure represented, we simply transliterate it as two seahs.

זֶרַע

 

זֶרַע: sow, scatter seed be sown, fructified
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

This is the last part of a construct chain which began with tybeK.

סָבִיב

 

סָבִיב: circuit, round about
particle, adverb 

לַ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, inseparable preposition with article 

מִּזְבֵּחַ

 

מִזְבֵּחַ: altar
noun, common, masculine, singular 

1 Kings 18:33

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יַּעֲרֹךְ

 

ערךְ: order, row, estimate
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

עֵצִים

 

עֵץ: tree, trees, wood
noun, common, masculine, plural 

 

~yci[eh'(-ta, %ro[]Y:w:  Compare this section with Genesis 22:9

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יְנַתַּח

 

נתח: cut in pieces
verb, piel, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

 

The guttural causes a change in the pointing.

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

פָּר

 

פַּר: bullock
noun, common, masculine, singular 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יָּשֶׂם

 

שׂים: put, place, set
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

 

If you need help, glance back at the chart in Gen.37:1. This is yet another case where English needs an expressed DO.

עַל־

 

עַל: on
particle, preposition 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

עֵצִים

 

עֵץ: tree, trees, wood
noun, common, masculine, plural 

1 Kings 18:34

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

מִלְאוּ

 

מלא: fulness, that which fills
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, plural 

 

Qal imperative of an “E” class verb. This is a place where a verb which is usually intransitive in the Qal certainly seems to be transitive here.

אַרְבָּעָה

 

אַרְבָּעָה:  four

adjective, masculine, singular 

כַדִּים

 

כַּד: jar
noun, common, feminine, plural 

מַיִם

 

מַיִם: waters, water
noun, common, masculine, plural 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִצְקוּ

 

יצק: pour, cast, flow
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, plural 

 

As has been the case earlier in the narrative, the word it has to be supplied in English.

עַל־

 

עַל: on
particle, preposition 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

עֹלָה

 

עֹלָה: sacrifice
noun, common, feminine, singular 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

עַל־

 

עַל: on
particle, preposition 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

עֵצִים

 

עֵץ: tree, trees, wood
noun, common, masculine, plural 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

שְׁנוּ

 

שׁנה: repeat
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, plural 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּשְׁנוּ

 

שׁנה: repeat
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

שַׁלֵּשׁוּ

 

שׁלשׁ: a three, triad
verb, piel, imperative, masculine, plural 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יְשַׁלֵּשׁוּ

 

שׁלשׁ: a three, triad
verb, piel, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

 

WvLe(v;y>w: WvLeÞv; rm,aYOðw: Wnëv.YIw: ‘Wnv. rm,aYOÝw: This is a magnificent example of compressed Hebrew expression. We have seen this type of thing all along, particularly in the readings in Kings but these phrases top them all. Notice also that the first set of verbs is in the Qal but the second set, being an intensification, is in the Piel.