1 Kings 18:25-29

1 Kings 18:25

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אֵלִיָּהוּ

 

אֵלִיָּהוּ: Elijahu
noun, proper name 

לִ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

נְבִיאֵי

 

נָבִיא: spokesman, speaker, prophet
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

בַּעַל

 

בַּעַל: Baal
noun, proper name 

בַּחֲרוּ

 

בּחר: choose
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, plural 

 

If the form is giving you trouble, read through the rest of the verse; that may help reveal the mood. The pointing could be either Qal or Piel.

לָכֶם

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with second person, masculine, plural suffix 

 

Is functioning like ~h,l' (1 Ki.18:23)

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

פָּר

 

פַּר: bullock
noun, common, masculine, singular 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אֶחָד

 

אֶחָד: one
adjective, masculine, singular 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

עֲשׂוּ

 

עשׂה: do be done be done make be made be made made cause work do assign gain
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, plural 

 

What is the usual vowel under the first root letter in this stem and form? Why is there a composite shewa in that position? The w has a patach under it to harmonise with the vowel next to it.

רִאשֹׁנָה

 

רִאשׁוֹן: former, first, chief
adjective, feminine, singular 

כִּי

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

אַתֶּם

 

אַתֶּם: you
pronoun, second person, masculine, plural 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

רַבִּים

 

רַב: much, many, great
adjective, masculine, plural 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

קִרְאוּ

 

קרא: call, read out, aloud
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, plural 

בְּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

שֵׁם

 

שֵׁם: name
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

אֱלֹהֵיכֶם

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with second person, masculine, plural suffix 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֵשׁ

 

אֵשׁ: fire
noun, common, feminine and masculine, singular 

לֹא

 

לֹא: no, not
particle, negative 

תָשִׂימוּ

 

שׂים: put, place, set
verb, qal, prefix, second person, masculine, plural 

1 Kings 18:26

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּקְחוּ

 

לקח: learning, teaching, take
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

פָּר

 

פַּר: bullock
noun, common, masculine, singular 

אֲשֶׁר־

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

נָתַן

 

נתן: give
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

 

!t;n"-rv,a] An affix form in a subordinate clause is often referring to an action which was done before the main action of the sentence and so we would use the pluperfect in English.

לָהֶם

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, plural suffix 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יַּעֲשׂוּ

 

עשׂה: do be done be done make be made be made made cause work do assign gain
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּקְרְאוּ

 

קרא: call, read out, aloud
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

בְ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

שֵׁם־

 

שֵׁם: name
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

בַּעַל

 

בַּעַל: Baal
noun, proper name 

 

It is common to see the definite article in front of a proper name, although we don’t acknowledge it in English translation.

מֵ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

בֹּקֶר

 

בֹּקֶר: morning
noun, common, masculine, singular 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

עַד־

 

עַד: until
particle, preposition 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

צָּהֳרַיִם

 

צָהֳרַיִם: noon
noun, common, masculine, plural 

לֵ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

אמֹר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

בַּעַל

 

בַּעַל: Baal
noun, proper name 

עֲנֵנוּ

 

ענה: answer
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, singular with first person, common, plural suffix 

 

If the root is not apparent, review your vocabulary; and if this section of the translation is difficult, study Lessons 18 and 20.

Valuable hint: when you see Wn eñ at the end of a verb (realising, of course, that the accented sere syllable is a critical component of this segment), then the Wn will always be the 1 c. pl object suffix.

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֵין

 

אַיִן: no, none
particle, adverb 

קוֹל

 

קוֹל: sound, voice
noun, common, masculine, singular 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֵין

 

אַיִן: no, none
particle, adverb 

עֹנֶה

 

ענה: answer
verb, qal, participle, masculine, singular 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יְפַסְּחוּ

 

פּסח: pass spring over
verb, piel, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

 

You saw this verb in another stem and form in 1 Ki.18:21.

עַל־

 

עַל: on
particle, preposition 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

מִּזְבֵּחַ

 

מִזְבֵּחַ: altar
noun, common, masculine, singular 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

עָשָׂה

 

עשׂה: do be done be done make be made be made made cause work do assign gain
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

 

hf'[' rv,a] The tense relationships in this clause parallel !t;n"-rv,a] at the beginning of the verse. (There are some tense relationships in the story too).

1 Kings 18:27

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יְהִי

 

היה: to be
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

בַ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, inseparable preposition with article 

צָּהֳרַיִם

 

צָהֳרַיִם: noon
noun, common, masculine, plural 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יְהַתֵּל

 

התל: deceive, mock
verb, piel, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

בָּהֶם

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, plural suffix 

אֵלִיָּהוּ

 

אֵלִיָּהוּ: Elijahu
noun, proper name 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

קִרְאוּ

 

קרא: call, read out, aloud
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, plural 

בְ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

קוֹל־

 

קוֹל: sound, voice
noun, common, masculine, singular 

גָּדוֹל

 

גָּדוֹל: great
adjective, masculine, singular 

כִּי־

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

אֱלֹהִים

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural 

הוּא

 

הוּא: he
pronoun, third person, masculine, singular 

כִּי

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

שִׂיחַ

 

שִׂיחַ: complaint, musing, meditate
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

x;yfi yKi This conjunction, which is repeated in the following phrases, conveys the idea of perhaps.

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

כִי־

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

שִׂיג

 

שִׂיג: a moving back away
noun, common, masculine, singular 

לוֹ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

Al %r,d,-ykiw> Al gyfi-ykiw> |  Al here is either a specific colloquialism, or it is being used in apposition to the verb like ^l. as in ^l.-%l, (Gen.22:2).

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

כִי־

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

דֶרֶךְ

 

דֶּרֶךְ: tread, march
noun, common, feminine and masculine, singular 

לוֹ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

אוּלַי

 

אוּלַי: perhaps
particle, adverb 

 

Listed precisely this way in the dictionary.

יָשֵׁן

 

יָשֵׁן: sleep
adjective, masculine, singular 

 

Do you recognise this verb type? (17.7)

הוּא

 

הוּא: he, it
pronoun, third person, masculine, singular 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִקָץ

 

יקץ: awake
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

 

A root you have seen which uses the two strong letters here is #cq (1 Ki.17:7) but #q")yIw> is not pointed for a Qal prefix of a geminate verb. #qy is a 1st y verb like ary which retains the y of the root in most forms. Here, unfortunately, the y of the root has elided and so the root’s identifying characteristic is lost. (In Gen.28:16 this verb appears in the Qal prefix with vav conversive and is written #q;yYIw: the way one would expect to see it). Quiz: is the w> vav reversive? What is the form of the verb?

1 Kings 18:28

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּקְרְאוּ

 

קרא: call, read out, aloud
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

בְּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

קוֹל

 

קוֹל: sound, voice
noun, common, masculine, singular 

גָּדוֹל

 

גָּדוֹל: great
adjective, masculine, singular 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּתְגֹּדְדוּ

 

גּדד: hew down
verb, hitpolel, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

 

Another Hitpolel of a geminate verb like ddeÛmot.YIw: (1 Ki.17:21). Both reflexive and interactive meanings might be appropriate here.

כְּ‍

 

כּ‍: the like of, like, as before
particle, preposition 

מִשְׁפָּטָם

 

מִשְׁפָּט: judgment court case decision justice law plan share custom
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with third person, masculine, plural suffix 

 

Although judgment is the primary meaning of this word, custom or fashion are also possibilities.

בַּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, inseparable preposition with article 

חֲרָבוֹת

 

חֶרֶב: sword
noun, common, feminine, plural 

 

tAbr'x]B; The preposition is functioning like that in vaeb' (1 Ki.18:24).

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

בָ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, inseparable preposition with article 

רְמָחִים

 

רֹמַח: spear, lance
noun, common, masculine, plural 

עַד־

 

עַד: until
particle, preposition 

שְׁפָךְ־

 

שׁפךְ: pour out, pour
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

דָּם

 

דָּם: blood
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

~D'-%p'v.-d[; This clause is similar syntactically to lWav' tAh.Bi (35.1) except the conjunction here is not attached to the verb.

עֲלֵיהֶם

 

עַל: on
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, plural suffix 

1 Kings 18:29

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יְהִי

 

היה: to be
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

כַּ‍

 

כּ‍: the like of, like, as before
particle, preposition 

עֲבֹר

 

עבר: pass over, through, by, pass on
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

צָּהֳרַיִם

 

צָהֳרַיִם: noon
noun, common, masculine, plural 

 

~yIr;h\C'h; rbo[]K; This phrase is constructed like ~D'-%p'v.-d[; In both cases there is a preposition + infinitive + subject.

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּתְנַבְּאוּ

 

נבא: prophesy
verb, hithpael, prefix, third person, masculine, plural, vav-conv

 

The root should be familiar. Some scholars believe that one of the meanings of the Hitpael is to feign something, like to play the prophet. But it is a major interpretation difference to say they prophesied or they feigned prophesy. Other possibilities could be they prophesied to each other, they prophesied to themselves (a bit far out perhaps but “correct”), they prophesied over and over.

עַד

 

עַד: until
particle, preposition 

לַ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

עֲלוֹת

 

עלה: offer, go up
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

מִּנְחָה

 

מִנְחָה: offering gift tribute
noun, common, feminine, singular 

 

hx'n>Mih; tAl[]l; The verb hl[ is intransitive in the Qal and so hx'n>Mih; cannot be the DO. Besides, if it were, it would probably have ta in front of it. hl[ in the Qal can mean be offered and hx'n>Mih; is the subject of the infinitive. The hx'n>Mi was probably an offering that was given late in the afternoon because it fits the context, and later in Judaism it became the term for the late afternoon service. Because the verb hl[ is used, it seems likely that this was a burnt offering although some interpreters think the term applies to any offering made to God.

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֵין־

 

אַיִן: no, not
particle, adverb 

 

!yaew> Note the repetition and extension of the !yaew> clauses here and also in 1 Ki.18:26.

קוֹל

 

קוֹל: sound, voice
noun, common, masculine, singular 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֵין־

 

אַיִן: no, not, none
particle, adverb 

עֹנֶה

 

ענה: answer
verb, qal, participle, masculine, singular 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֵין

 

אַיִן: no, not
particle, adverb 

קָשֶׁב

 

קֶשֶׁב: incline, attend
noun, common, masculine, singular