1 Kings 17:16-20

1 Kings 17:16

כַּד

 

כַּד: jar
noun, common, feminine, singular 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

קֶּמַח

 

קֶמַח: flour, meal
noun, common, masculine, singular 

לֹא

 

לֹא: no, not
particle, negative 

כָלָתָה

 

כּלה: fail
verb, qal, affix, third person, feminine, singular 

 

Compare this to hl'k.ti (1 Ki.17:14).

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

צַפַּחַת

 

צַפַּחַת: jar, jug
noun, common, feminine, singular, construct 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

שֶּׁמֶן

 

שֶׁמֶן: oil
noun, common, masculine, singular 

לֹא

 

לֹא: no, not
particle, negative 

חָסֵר

 

חסר: want, lack
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

 

This verb in the Qal prefix appears in 1 Ki.17:14

כִּ‍

 

כּ‍: the like of, like, as before
particle, preposition 

דְבַר

 

דָּבָר: word
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

דִּבֶּר

 

דּבר: speak
verb, piel, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

בְּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

יַד

 

יָד: hand
noun, common, feminine, singular, construct 

 

dy: has a lot of figurative meanings. Here it implies agency.

אֵלִיָּהוּ

 

אֵלִיָּהוּ: Elijahu
noun, proper name 

פ‍

 

פ
paragraph marker or nun 

1 Kings 17:17

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יְהִי

 

היה: to be
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

אַחַר

 

אַחַר: after
particle, adverb 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

דְּבָרִים

 

דָּבָר: thing, word
noun, common, masculine, plural 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אֵלֶּה

 

אֵלֶּה: these
adjective, common, plural 

 

hL,aeh' ~yrIb'D>h; rx;a; yhiy>w:  This expression is the sign of a new story. Genesis 22 starts the same way.

חָלָה

 

חלה: be ill be sick afflict cause illness appear ill be wounded internally wounded cause to suffer with wounds be wounded weak be weak become weak feel grief be grieved cause to grieve be tired
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

בֶּן־

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אִשָּׁה

 

אִשָּׁה: woman
noun, common, feminine, singular 

בַּעֲלַת

 

בַּעֲלָה: mistress female owner
noun, common, feminine, singular, construct 

 

The B is part of the noun, not the sign of a preposition + definite article.

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

בָּיִת

 

בַּיִת: house
noun, common, masculine, singular 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יְהִי

 

היה: to be
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

חָלְיוֹ

 

חֳלִי: sickness
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

This is a noun (with a suffix) formed like yliK. (1 Ki.17:10). The root occurs earlier in the verse.

חָזָק

 

חָזָק: strength
adjective, masculine, singular 

מְאֹד

 

מְאֹד: muchness, force, abundance, exceedingly
particle, adverb 

עַד

 

עַד: appointed place, until
particle, preposition 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

 

rv<a] d[; A compound preposition which is translated as the conjunction until.

לֹא־

 

לֹא: no, not
particle, negative 

נוֹתְרָה־

 

יתר: remain over
verb, niphal, affix, third person, feminine, singular 

 

The two indisputable root letters are r t If you can figure out the function of the w you will have the root. The subject is at the end of the verse.

בּוֹ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

נְשָׁמָה

 

נְשָׁמָה: breath life spirit
noun, common, feminine, singular 

 

This is close in meaning to vp,n, (Dt.6:5) but hm'v'n> is one’s actual breath.

1 Kings 17:18

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

תֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, feminine, singular, vav-conv

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

אֵלִיָּהוּ

 

אֵלִיָּהוּ: Elijahu
noun, proper name 

מַה־

 

מָה: what
pronoun, interrogative 

לִּי

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with first person, common, singular suffix 

וָ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

לָךְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with second person, feminine, singular suffix 

 

%l"w" yLi-hm; Literally What [is it] to me and to you? An idiom meaning What is there between you and me?

אִישׁ

 

אִישׁ: man
noun, common, masculine, singular 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אֱלֹהִים

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural 

 

Same syntactical function as laer'f.yI in Dt.6:4 laer'f.yI [m;v.

בָּאתָ

 

בּוא: come in, come, go in, go
verb, qal, affix, second person, masculine, singular 

אֵלַי

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition with first person, common, singular suffix 

לְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

הַזְכִּיר

 

זכר: remember
verb, hiphil, infinitive construct 

 

ryKiz>h;l. Do not panic. There are three strong letters here from which to abstract the root. The text is not explicit as to just who is doing the remembering.

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

עֲוֹנִי

 

עָוֹן: iniquity, guilt punishment of iniquity
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with first person, common, singular suffix 

 

Hebrew has many words for sin. Some are

hw[ Which means err and is most frequently seen as the noun !A['

ajx Usually means miss the mark, err, offend

[vr Connotes acting wickedly, gross crass wickedness

[vP Is rebel, revolt

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

לְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

הָמִית

 

מות: die
verb, hiphil, infinitive construct 

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

בְּנִי

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with first person, common, singular suffix 

1 Kings 17:19

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אֵלֶיהָ

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition with third person, feminine, singular suffix 

תְּנִי־

 

נתן: give
verb, qal, imperative, feminine, singular 

 

20.6a

לִי

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with first person, common, singular suffix 

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

בְּנֵךְ

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with second person, feminine, singular suffix 

 

For the suffix see %dEy"B. (1 Ki.17:11)

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּקָּחֵהוּ

 

לקח: learning, teaching, take
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular with third person, masculine, singular suffix, vav-conv

 

Synopsis of common 3 m. sg. suffixes

 

A   w   3 m. sg possessive suffix on a noun

Ayl.x' his sickness (1 Ki.17:17)                         

wyr'['n> his youths (Gen.22:3)

 

A   w   3 m. sg object suffix on a preposition

AB-r[;g>YIw: and he rebuked him (Gen.37:10)     

wyl'êae to him (Gen.22:1)

 

A   Wh   WN <ñ  3 m. sg. object suffix on a verb

At*ymih]l; to kill him (Gen.37:18)                    

WNK,n: al{ let us not kill him (Gen.37:21)

WhxeQ'YIw: and he took him (1 Ki.17:19)

מֵ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

חֵיקָהּ

 

חֵיק: bosom
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with third person, feminine, singular suffix 

 

Hollow roots often have biforms. This root may be listed qyx or qwx

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יַּעֲלֵהוּ

 

עלה: go up
verb, hiphil, prefix, third person, masculine, singular with third person, masculine, singular suffix, vav-conv

 

What stem(s) could this be? (32.3b) The suffix is the determining feature.

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

עֲלִיָּה

 

עֲלִיָּה: roof-chamber
noun, common, feminine, singular 

אֲשֶׁר־

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

הוּא

 

הוּא: he, it
pronoun, third person, masculine, singular 

יֹשֵׁב

 

ישׁב: sit, remain, dwell
verb, qal, participle, masculine, singular 

שָׁם

 

שָׁם: there
particle, adverb 

 

~v' bveyO aWh-rv,a] Syntax: see 22.8

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יַּשְׁכִּבֵהוּ

 

שׁכב: lie down
verb, hiphil, prefix, third person, masculine, singular with third person, masculine, singular suffix, apocopated ending, vav-conv

 

Pay particular attention to stem indicators.

עַל־

 

עַל: on
particle, preposition 

מִטָּתוֹ

 

מִטָּה: bed
noun, common, feminine, singular, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

The reason for the dagesh is very interesting. The m is not the remnant of the preposition !mi because you would not see !mi-l[; The m is part of the noun hj'mi which comes from the root hjn stretch out, extend, incline and so the dagesh is the footprint of the n of the root.

1 Kings 17:20

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יִּקְרָא

 

קרא: call, read out, aloud
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמַר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

 

What is the subject of the verb? The fact that the atnah comes here suggests that what comes next starts a new thought.

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

אֱלֹהָי

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct with first person, common, singular suffix 

 

The usual pointing would be yh;Ola/ but the accent over this word (the two dots) sometimes causes the word to be in pause and so may cause lengthening of the vowel.

הֲ

 

הֲ: the
particle, interrogative 

גַם

 

גַּם: also, moreover, year
particle, conjunction 

 

~g:h] Can the h] here be the sign of the Hifil or the definite article? If not, why not? What else could it be? (28.6) There is a long rv,a] clause (22.8) before the main verb.

עַל־

 

עַל: on
particle, preposition 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אַלְמָנָה

 

אַלְמָנָה: widow
noun, common, feminine, singular 

אֲשֶׁר־

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

אֲנִי

 

אֲנִי: I
pronoun, first person, common, singular 

מִתְגּוֹרֵר

 

גּור: sojourn
verb, hitpolel, participle, masculine, singular 

 

The Hitpael participle can be recognised by the   t.mi preformative. The Hitpael, like the Piel, requires a doubling of the middle root letter which, as we have seen, is a problem with hollow verbs. The root here is rWg and the intensification is achieved by doubling the third root letter. To be technically correct, we have to call this the Hitpolel rather than the Hitpael because of the pointing (see ^l.K,l.k;l. 1 Ki.17:4 for another solution to the same problem.

עִמָּהּ

 

עִם: with
particle, preposition with third person, feminine, singular suffix 

הֲרֵעוֹתָ

 

רעע: be evil, bad
verb, hiphil, affix, second person, masculine, singular 

 

Finally the main verb! This time h] cannot be the interrogative because

1. there already is an interrogative in this sentence and

2. it is not at the beginning of a phrase or clause.

So h] is probably the sign of the hiphil. The PGN is 2 m. sg. That leaves w[r Like a y a w cannot be a third root letter. The root is the geminate [[r Geminates can have two spellings in the Qal and the Hifil. One of those inserts holem A before the affix pronoun in some PGN’s. The Qal of [[r is be evil; the Hifil is made evil to be.

לְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

הָמִית

 

מות: die
verb, hiphil, infinitive construct 

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

בְּנָהּ

 

בֵּן: son
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with third person, feminine, singular suffix