1 Kings 17:1-5

1 Kings 17:1

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֹּאמֶר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, vav-conv

אֵלִיָּהוּ

 

אֵלִיָּהוּ: Elijahu
noun, proper name 

 

Can you translate the components of this name?

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

תִּשְׁבִּי

 

תִּשְׁבִּי: Tishbite
noun, proper name 

מִ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

תֹּשָׁבֵי

 

תּוֹשָׁב: temporary resident guest
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

 

One way to read this word is as a gentilic (22.5). The KJV translates it this way “Tishbite”. Another way is to read the word as a variant of the noun bv'AT sojourner.

גִלְעָד

 

גִּלְעָד: Gilead Gilead family of the territory of Gad
noun, proper name 

אֶל־

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition 

אַחְאָב

 

אַחְאָב: Ahab
noun, proper name 

חַי־

 

חַי: living
adjective, masculine, singular 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

 

hw"hy>-yx; This phrase introduces an oath formula. The formula consists of three parts:

  1. The deity by whom the person is swearing, which here is

 laer'f.yI yhel{a/ hw"hy

  1. Then a clause will be introduced by ~ai which is understood as a negative, even though a negative particle as such doesn’t appear: ie. That such-and-such-won’t-happen.
  2. ~ai yKi begins the third clause and is translatted as but, except, unless.

 

An oath formula can consist of only the first two components, but usually you will see all three. It exists mostly in 1 Kings. Here we have a particularly full and complete example.

אֱלֹהֵי

 

אֱלֹהִים: God
noun, common, masculine, plural, construct 

יִשְׂרָאֵל

 

יִשְׂרָאֵל: Israel
noun, proper name 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

עָמַדְתִּי

 

עמד: take one’s stand, stand
verb, qal, affix, first person, common, singular 

 

In direct speech the affix form of the verb is sometimes used even though the action is taking place in the present.

לְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

פָנָיו

 

פָּנֶה: face
noun, common, feminine and masculine, plural, construct with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

אִם־

 

אִם: if
particle, adverb 

יִהְיֶה

 

היה: to be
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

שָּׁנִים

 

שָׁנָה: year
noun, common, feminine, plural 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

אֵלֶּה

 

אֵלֶּה: these
adjective, common, plural 

טַל

 

טַל: dew
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

This can be found under the root llj Two letter nouns are usually formed from geminate or hollow roots.

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

מָטָר

 

מָטָר: rain
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

The m is not a preformative here. It is actually part of the root. Hebrew has many words for rain, each having to do with the season in which it falls and the type of rain that it is. rj"m' is the most general term for rain. lj; is very fine rain, like a mist or dew. ~v,G< is heavy rain. The early, light rain is hr<Ay and the latter, heavier rain is vAql.m;

כִּי

 

כִּי: surely, that
particle, conjunction 

אִם־

 

אִם: if
particle, adverb 

לְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

פִי

 

פֶּה: mouth
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

 

ypil. Three letters and only one is part of the rooot! What root letter have you seen which falls off before a suffix can be added? That happens with nouns as well as verbs. The root here can be found in the dictionary as a two letter word. But even easier than that, it is a vocabulary word.

דְבָרִי

 

דָּבָר: speak
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct with first person, common, singular suffix 

ס

 

ס
paragraph marker or nun 

1 Kings 17:2

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יְהִי

 

היה: to be
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

דְבַר־

 

דָּבָר: speak
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

אֵלָיו

 

אֶל: motion to direction towards
particle, preposition with third person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

wyl'îae hwhy-rb;d> Such a phrase is often seen in the prophets. It can be read as a noun sentencce but the verb came is often used instead of was to make it flow better in English. It is grammatically possible that yhiy>w: is the verb for this phrase, but stylistically unlikely.

לֵ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

אמֹר

 

אמר: utter, say
verb, qal, infinitive construct 

1 Kings 17:3

לֵךְ

 

הלךְ: go, walk
verb, qal, imperative, masculine, singular 

מִ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

זֶּה

 

זֶה: this, here
adjective, masculine, singular 

 

hz< is being used as a substantive adjective.

וּ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

פָנִיתָ

 

פּנה: turn
verb, qal, affix, second person, masculine, singular 

לְּךָ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

^L. t'ynIp'W %lE The sequence here: imperative followed by affix + vav reversive gives the affix form imperative force. (See T'êb.h;a'äw>  lae_r'f.yI [m;Þv. Dt.6:4-5). ^L. used precisely this way appears in ^l.-%l, (Gen.22:2).

קֵדְמָה

 

קֵדֶם: eastward to, toward the East
particle, adverb, directional heh ending 

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

נִסְתַּרְתָּ

 

סתר: hide, conceal
verb, niphal, affix, second person, masculine, singular 

 

The consonant cluster rts can be extracted from this word to supply the root; that leaves three other elements. w> is vav-reversive. Now you have T' - - - nI

Which of these consonants must be the subject pronoun? What will the other one be? The niphal preformative. This verb is still part of the sequence imperative + affix.

בְּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

נַחַל

 

נַחַל: get or take as a possession
noun, common, masculine, singular 

 

This is a segolate noun (see: The Noun F) but it is pointed with patach instead of segol because of the middle guttural. Gutturals have a propensity for the vowel patach under them, before them, and even after them.

כְּרִית

 

כְּרִית: Kerith
noun, proper name 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

עַל־

 

עַל: on
particle, preposition 

פְּנֵי

 

פָּנֶה: face
noun, common, feminine and masculine, plural, construct 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

יַּרְדֵּן

 

יַרְדֵּן: Jordan
noun, proper name 

1 Kings 17:4

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

הָיָה

 

היה: to be
verb, qal, affix, third person, masculine, singular 

מֵ‍

 

מִן: from
particle, preposition 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

נַּחַל

 

נַחַל: get or take as a possession
noun, common, masculine, singular 

תִּשְׁתֶּה

 

שׁתה: drink
verb, qal, prefix, second person, masculine, singular 

 

What will you take off to find the root? Does either dagesh represent doubling?

וְ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

אֶת־

 

אֵת: DDO
particle, direct object 

הָ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

עֹרְבִים

 

עֹרֵב: raven
noun, common, masculine, plural 

 

The root of these word means to become dark, from which we get the translation raven.

צִוִּיתִי

 

צוה: lay charge give charge charge, command, order
verb, piel, affix, first person, common, singular 

לְ

 

ל: to, for, in regard to direction towards reference to
particle, preposition 

כַלְכֶּלְךָ

 

כּול: comprehend, contain, nourish, provide
verb, pilpel, infinitive construct with second person, masculine, singular suffix 

 

^l.K,l.k;l. Remove the preposition and the suffix. You are left with two letters lk which are repeated. Doubling of the two strong consonants is one way that a hollow verb can be intensified because the middle letter, being a vowel letter, cannot be doubled. This stem is called the Pilpel and is a variant of the Piel.

שָׁם

 

שָׁם: there
particle, adverb 

1 Kings 17:5

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֵּלֶךְ

 

הלךְ: go, walk
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

 

bv,YEw: %l,YEw: f[;Y:w: %l,YEw: You can translate these verbs literally. Some translators consider %l;h' in front of another verb to be idiomatic, being used to convey a sequence of actions, and they leave it out of the translation. We just don’t know whether %lh used this way is emphatic, stylistic, idiomatic, or colloquial.

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יַּעַשׂ

 

עשׂה: do be done be done make be made be made made cause work do assign gain
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

כִּ‍

 

כּ‍: the like of, like, as before
particle, preposition 

דְבַר

 

דָּבָר: word
noun, common, masculine, singular, construct 

יְהוָה

 

יהוה: Yahweh
noun, proper name 

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֵּלֶךְ

 

הלךְ: go, walk
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

וַ

 

ו: so, then, and consecutive that so that so, then
particle, conjunction 

יֵּשֶׁב

 

ישׁב: sit, remain, dwell
verb, qal, prefix, third person, masculine, singular, apocopated ending, vav-conv

בְּ

 

בּ: in, with, through
particle, preposition 

נַחַל

 

נַחַל: get or take as a possession
noun, common, masculine, singular 

כְּרִית

 

כְּרִית: Kerith
noun, proper name 

אֲשֶׁר

 

אֲשֶׁר: which, that
particle, relative 

עַל־

 

עַל: on
particle, preposition 

פְּנֵי

 

פָּנֶה: before
noun, common, feminine and masculine, plural, construct 

הַ

 

ה: the
particle, article 

יַּרְדֵּן

 

יַרְדֵּן: Jordan
noun, proper name